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DOWNWARD IMPRESSION MANAGEMENT AND WORKERS CITIZENSHIP BEHAVIOUR (A STUDY OF PORT HARCOURT CITY AND OBIO/AKPOR L.G.AS)



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DOWNWARD IMPRESSION MANAGEMENT AND WORKERS CITIZENSHIP BEHAVIOUR (A STUDY OF PORT HARCOURT CITY AND OBIO/AKPOR L.G.AS)




TABLE OF CONTENTS
Title Page                                                                                 i
Certification                                                                             ii
Declaration                                                                              iii
Acknowledgment                                                                     iv
Abstract                                                                                   vi
Table of Contents                                                                     vii
List of Tables                                                                           viii
CHAPTER ONE: INTRODUCTION
1.1   Back ground of study                                                       1
1.2   statement of the problem                                                 4
1.3   purpose of the study                                                                5
1.4   Research questions                                                          7
1.5   Hypotheses                                                                      7
1.6   significance of the study                                                  8
1.7   scope of the study                                                            8
1.8   limitations of the study                                                    9
1.9   definition of terms                                                           10
1.10 organization of study                                                               10
CHAPTER TWO: REVIEW OF RELATED LITERATURE
2.1   Introduction                                                                     13
2.2   concept of impression management                                         13
2.3   types of impression management                                     18
2.3.1 Non-verbal tactics                                                           18
2.3.2 Verbal Tactics                                                                         18
2.3.3. Ingratiation                                                                    19
2.3.4 Self Promotion                                                                        20
2.3.5 Exemplification                                                               23
2.4   Concept of organization citizenship behaviour                25
2.5   Nature of organizational Citizenship behavior                 28
2.5.1 Altruism                                                                          28
2.5.2 Civic Virtue                                                                     29
2.6   impression management and organization citizenship
Behaviour                                                                                        30
CHAPTER THREE: RESEARCH METHODOLOGY
3.1   Introduction                                                                     36
3.2   Research Design                                                              36
3.3   The population of the study                                             38
3.4   Sample size determination                                               38
3.5   Data collection technique                                                        39
3.5.1 Questionnaire Design                                                     39
3.5.2 Oral Interview                                                                 40
3.6   Data analysis technique                                                  41
3.7   Validity and Reliability of the instrument                                42
3.8   Measurement of the variable                                            42


CHAPTER ONE
INTRODUCTION
1.1      BACKGROUND OF THE STUDY
Earlier research on organizational citizenship behavior suggests that employees engage in acts of selfless service to their organization (Bolino 1999). Nowadays, in the competitive world, organizations need employee whose performance goes beyond their traditional job descriptions or formal duties as a vital source of organizational effectiveness. Similarly employees display higher levels of performance and acts more than their jobs requirement at the workplace. Chen et al (1998) noted that when employees show organizational citizenship behavior the turnover rate will be decreased. With respect to the human performance in organizations, they further addressed the potentials and practical values of the voluntary behaviors of employees and recognition of employees’ positive work attitudes and contributions, that go beyond their job prescriptions or formal duties, as vital sources or organizational effectiveness. 
However, such behaviors also may be impression enhancing and self-serving. The research on citizenship behavior at the workplace has almost exclusively concerned antecedents consistent with these theoretical bases. Examples of the antecedents examined by researches include job attitudes (Bateman & Organ, 1983), job cognitions (Organ & Konovsky, 1989), dispositional factors (e.g, agreeableness, 1996) positive affect (George, 1991), positive mood sates (Smith, et al 1983), concern for others (Michoff & Moorman, 1993), and collectivism (Moorman & Blakely, 1995). The common denominator across these studies is the notion that citizenship behavior at the workplace stems from an individual’s desire to help others or the organization because of disposition or a sense of disposition or a sense of obligation; describing such individuals as “good soldiers” or “good citizens”.
More recently, Podsakoff et al, (2009) identified that organizational citizenship behaviors have a positive relationship with performance ratings and reward allocations.
Also, Podsakoff et al, (2010) examined the effects of job candidates tendency to exhibit organization citizenship behaviors on selection of decisions made in the context of a job interview. These researchers found that candidates whose interview response indicated a tendency to engage in helping others, challenge the status quo by voicing their opinions, and support and defend and organization were generally viewed as competent, received higher overall evaluations, and received higher recommended starting salaries than those who did not.
Similarity, Organ and Ryan (1995) conducted a meta-analytic review of 55 studies of organization citizenship behavior. Their review focused on job attitudes such as fairness, organizational commitment, leadership consideration and personality variables. Some studies have concluded that one aspect of job attitude, job satisfaction, is a good predictor of employee performance.
Despite the vast literature on workers citizenship behavior there appears to be a dearth in literature on the influence of downward I impression management on workers citizenship behavior, between superior and subordinate at the Nigerian workplace, taking into consideration the Local Government Areas of the country. The Local Government as the third tier of government that is closer to the people, where the superiors come with more promises and little to show for at the end of their tenure, leaving the subordinate with negative impression or image about them.
1.2      STATEMENT OF THE PROBLEM
The past researchers on organizational citizenship behaviors have been conducted in the context of the western culture, but there is still some confusion about how factors influencing OCBs differ in the context of other cultures.
However, this problem has manifested to the extent that workers are no longer committed to their jobs. They come late to work and most times do not even show up at their respective offices, they show little or no concern about what goes on within the organization. Similarly, these workers are not paid as at when due, most of their allowance has not been remitted to the workers. This problem has indicated in the manner at which the workers conduct their private businesses at the workplace. Most of these workers are serious only when they heard that salaries will be paid and that is when they start coming to office.
Consequently, researchers have found that employee satisfaction, organizational commitment, organizational justice, career development, age, tenure, personality, motivation, leadership and leadership behavior all impact affect citizenship behavior within an organization (Bateman et al 1983).
Most research has focus on rewarding an employee based on job requirements but has not really focused on the employee who does an extra role activity and how to reward and encourage the employee.
1.3      PURPOSE OF THE STUDY
The purpose of this study is to examine the influence of downward impression management on organizational citizenship behavior.





Figure 1 Conceptual Framework
 











Source: Authors Conceptualization
However a specific objective involves
1.     To determine the extent to which ingratiation influences works citizenship behavior.
2.     To determine the extent to which exemplification influences workers citizenship behavior.
3.     To determine the extent to which self- promotion influences workers citizenship behavior.
1.4   RESEARCH QUESTIONS
To ascertain a valid research work the following questions were formulated.
1.     To what extent does ingratiation influence workers citizenship behavior.
2.     To what extent does exemplification influence workers citizenship behavior.
3.     To what extent does self-promotion influence workers citizenship behavior.
1.5   HYPOTHESES
HO1:  There is no significant relationship between ingratiation and altruism.
HO2:  There is no significant relationship between ingratiation and civic virtue.
HO3:   There is no significant relationship between exemplification and altruism.
HO4:  There is no significant relationship between exemplification and civic virtue.
HO5: There is no significant relationship between self-promotion and altruism.
HO6:   There is no significant relationship between self-promotion and civic virtue.
1.6   SIGNIFICANCE OF THE STUDY
The importance in carrying out this study cannot be over emphasized, with the introduction of 3600 degree performance appraisal system. Managers often consider OCB when evaluating employee performance and determining promotions and pay increases.
Employees who engage in citizenship behavior are expected to have higher levels of job motivation and job satisfaction than employees who do not. Furthermore, it is suggested that these higher levels of OCB may lead to increased productivity and consequently, higher profitability.
1.7   SCOPE OF THE STUDY
This study covers theories of downward impression management and workers citizenship behavior as its content and theoretical scope.
The survey or geographical scope of the study covers selected employees in Obio/Akpor and Port Harcourt Local Government Council’s respectively.
The study unit scope coves the unit of analysis i.e. individual level of analysis.
1.8   LIMITATIONS OF THE STUDY
There were various constraints encountered in the cause of this research work. The problem of meeting these workers in their offices during working hours and also to retrieve the research tool use. The issue of time and finance was a constraint.
This study was carried out with questionnaires as the investigating tool. Thus, the research work will be limited to the response given by the respondents. The study was also limited by not using all of the measures and dimensions of the predictor and criterion variables.
1.9   DEFINITION OF TERMS
Organizational Citizenship Behavior:  extra role activity that we do to benefit the organization.
Downward Impression Management: Creating an image that makes your subordinate to look unto you as being good for a role model.
Impression Management: An image we create of ourselves that we want others to see us as.
1.10 ORGANIZATION OF THE STUDY
This study is divided into 5 chapters, chapter 1 includes the overview of the study, statement of the problem, purpose of the study, research question, hypotheses, significance of the study, limitations of the study, definition of terms, and organization of the study.
Chapter 2 includes the review of literature in the area of employee commitment.
Chapter 3 contains the research methodology that will be used in the course of the study and shall include the research design, sampling procedures, sample size determination, data collection, and data analysis techniques.
Chapter 4 includes data presentation, analysis interpretation and test of hypotheses.
Chapter 5 includes discussion, recommendation, and suggestion for further studies.
Finally, the questionnaire and other relevant appendix are include to support the analysis of the study.




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