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IMPACT OF RURAL URBAN MIGRATION ON ECONOMIC TRANSFORMATION OF THE SOCIETY A CASE STUDY OF JALINGO LOCAL GOVERNMENT AREA THE TARABA SCATE CAPITAL





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IMPACT OF RURAL URBAN MIGRATION ON ECONOMIC TRANSFORMATION OF THE SOCIETY
A CASE STUDY OF JALINGO LOCAL GOVERNMENT AREA THE TARABA SCATE CAPITAL



ABSTRACT
Rural urban migration is a phenomenon that causes a lot of concern to the people of the under developed countries which ours is one among them. It is a believe that movement of people from one place to another must have a cause and consequences which attract or pull migrants to such an area of destination. This was because of the fact that the interactive exchange of goods and services drives from regional variation in ecological conditions and natural endowments, uneven distribution of productive factors and their indivisibility as well as regional variation in human resources, trade, tradition, taste and consumption patterns necessitate movement. In addition the undue concentration of socio-economic development in the urban areas and the neglect of rural areas have all resulted to the phenomenon rural urban migration. The researcher find his way into the issue of rural urban migration which has been attracted people’s attention to order to see if there are some benefit derivable from the people influx to the city of Jalingo. If such exist or not what recommendation can be put forward to better the lot of the city and rural people? The fact of this work was based on these hypothesis made;
i.        There is no significant relationship between rural urban migration, into Jalingo and unemployment rate in the city.
ii.       There is no significant relationship between rural urban migration and increase in price of basic commodities in the
iii.      There is no significant relationship between rural urban migration to Jalingo and accommodation problem in the city of Jalingo.
From the analysis of the fieldwork, I discovered that the magnitude of people influx into the city is high and have some associated social problems which some among them are; increase in price of goods and services, low standard of living of those who are already in the city, problem of accommodation, overused of available social amenities in the city and as well as creating city slums. Based on the findings from the sample population, I therefore recommend that (1) the traditional practice and custom of rural community surrounding the state capital jalingo should be restrain their conservation spirit be curtail to accept changes in order to enhance development trough urban rural migration Patten which would in turn attract investment in the rural areas. (2) the practice of land ownership by rural community should be checked to enable those with investible intention in agriculture have access to the land where they will invest which will create employment opportunities to the rural dwellers and induce social essentialities of life to their host community gearing toward development which will in the long run discourage rural urban migration. (3) Government of the day should revive and overhaul it loadable programme with perfect implementation of it aims and objectives. Such as national directory of employment gearing toward self-reliance and self-employment, directory of food roads and rural infrastructure, gearing towards improving the production of land and creating access road and storage facilities to the agricultural in both the rural and urban areas. (4) The expansions of urban development strategies by creating job opportunities for absorption of migrants to the urban area


TABLE OF CONTENTS
Title Page                                                                                 i
Certification                                                                             ii
Dedication                                                                               iii
Acknowledgment                                                                     iv
Abstract                                                                                   v
Table of Contents                                                                     vi
CHAPTER ONE
1.0   Introduction/background information                             1
1.1   Statement of problem                                                      2
1.2   Objectives of the study                                                     4
1.3   Research hypothesis                                                                5
1.4   Methodology of study                                                       6
1.5   Limitation of study                                                           8
1.6   Significance of study                                                                9
1.7   Organization of study                                                       10
CHAPTER TWO: LITERATURE REVIEW AND THEORETICAL FRAMEWORK
2.0   Introduction                                                                     10
2.1   Causes of rural urban migration                                      11
2.2   Consequences of rural urban migration                           16
2.3   Migrants characteristic                                                    22
2.4   Effort on the part government to alleviate the problems of city dweller                                                                            23


CHAPTER THREE
3.0   Introduction of data collection                                         25
3.1   Instrumentation of data collection                                   26
3.2   Population and sample of study                                      27
3.3   Technique of data analysis                                              29
CHAPTER FOUR
4.0   Presentation and analysis of data                                    30
4.1   Introduction                                                                     31
4.2   Presentation of data                                                         34
4.3   Data analysis and discussion                                          35
4.4   Testing of hypothesis                                                       37
4.5   Discussion of result                                                         39
CHAPTER FIVE: SUMMARY, CONCLUSION AND RECOMMENDATION
5.0   Introduction                                                                     40
5.2   Summary                                                                         41
5.3   Recommendation                                                             43
References                                                                               44
Bibliography                                                                            43
Questionnaires                                                                                44



CHAPTER ONE
INTRODUCTION
1.1   BACKGROUND OF THE STUDY
History has shown that people’s settlement from time immemorial was induced by movement. Migration means movement of people from one place to another.
Migration from rural to urban areas has come to be almost accepted as a normal pheromone in Nigeria and the rest of the world. Many developing countries are currently experiencing large-scale movements from the rural areas to the urban centers. Human migration may be seen as a major mechanism of social and cultural diffusion and have played a tremendous role in helping mankind maintain a more or less even balance between distribution of numbers and resources among nations.
Migration in its totality is classified into interpersonal, interregional and international movement. All rest emphasis on the place of origin and place of destination via, rural urban migration and urban rural migration. These types have played a leading role in the development and transformation of individual regions and continent of the world.
Bartitle Olinlin (1933) puts that the flow of information within a national territory creates the conditions which favour increasingly intensive interaction, between different area manifested in the movement of goods and services between them. He noted that the intensity of this interaction and the volume and diversity of the goods and services which interchange, thus become measure not only of national integration but also of the of development within the country.
The basis of movement can be stress in terms of the underlying conditions instigated by people who decides to move and the movement patterns. It is believe that people move from one area to another because of sets of force or circumstances that derives them out of the old habitat that is set of push factors it’s important to know whether movement is voluntary of involuntary. The assumption was that movement that occurred in the ancient world is voluntary because it was instigated due to the decreasing capacity of land for food production thus, necessitated a move to a new habitant. The involuntary migration is more often the result of some positive pull factors towards a new pole such include better home and better economic opportunities.
Rural-urban migration leads too many positive and negative social facts both on the origin and the destination which remains as a social problem in the mind of the society dwellers that needed a solution hence the study is undertaken.
On the positive aspect of rural urban migration, the following can be noted:
a.     Rural urban migration usually provides more directly evidence of the development of urban located production and of a continuing demand for labour to engage in the production. This implies that migrants create urban labour force.
b.     Migration may undergo economic social and political changes as a result of moving into a new location that is urban centrre.
c.     Migration from rural areas to urban areas may have access to further their education need.
d.     Migration of people has a strong tendency to bring about some degree of spatial and national integration.
On the negative aspect of rural urban migration these point below can be considered, via;
a.     Unemployment and under employment may fall in the sending areas as migrants leave.
b.     It resulted to the over use of the available social amenities in the city.
c.     Migrants with employment problems might become violent criminals and political dissidents.
d.     Rural urban migration will lead to increase in price of the available goods and service in the urban centre.
1.1   STATEMENT OF PROBLEMS
The mass movement of people into the city has created a number of social problems to it dwellers. This problem is stated as follows:
a.     Prices of the basic necessities of life such as food, accommodation and clothing have gone up as a result of rural urban migration into the city.
b.     Influx of people into urban areas have led to overused of the available social economic infrastructure found in the urban areas.
c.     Urban areas are facing the problems of congestion and environmental pollution caused by massive movement of people of into the city.
d.     Influx of migrant from rural areas to the city in search of white colour job (employment opportunity) have resulted to many graduate and school leavers unemployed.
These problems have posed a lot of challenges to policy makers of the developing countries where the phenomenon is often found and efforts have been made to emiloriate these problems by policy makers have yielded no dividend since the state creation. Among the policy measures adopted by both the national and state government include, national directorate of employment (NDE) directorate of foods, roads and rural infrastructure (DFRRI). The expansion of urban development strategies to create opportunities of absorption of migrant and rural development strategies of reduce the effect of the push factors on the rural populace to the city. Since mid-seventies and eighties have not achieved the desire results.
It does also believe failure of these policies eminates from wrong understanding of the situation which have resulted in the need to understand the impact of rural urban migration on economic transformation of the society. Jalingo metropolis” this is because what is relevant in one area cannot be said to be universal. Jalingo is one of such area experiencing this problems that needs to be studied thus impact of rural-urban migration on economic transformation of the society with jalingo a case study”.
1.2   OBJECTIVE OF STUDY
Having highlighted the problems and benefit associated with rural urban migration cities, this study is set out to identify and outline the possible courses of rural urban migration to jalingo metropolis, to discuss the socio economic impact of rural urban migration on area of origin and destination. And to suggest the possible ways of meliorating these problems
1.3   RESEARCH HYPOTHESIS
In order to achieve the stated objectives of the study the following assumption will be tested.
i.      There is no significant relationship between rural urban migration to Jalingo and unemployment in the city.
ii.     There is no significant relationship between rural urban migration to Janlingo and accommodation problems in the city.
1.4   METHOD OF STUDY /INTRODUCTION
The findings of this research work will base on primary source of data collection. Where questionnaire, oral interview and sample survey will be adapted to a cross section of the sample population.
1.4.1 STUDY AREA
Jalingo the Taraba state capital is situated in the North East of the country Nigeria. It became a state in 1991 during the then general Ibrahim Badamasi Babangida regime it was created our from the defunct Gongola State which is now made up of Admawa and Taraba State respectively. The state share, in the South West plateau state, in the south-east with the republic of Cameroon, Adamawa State in the North and the south-south with Benue state.
1.4.2 STUDY AREA CHARACTERISTIC
This research work is restricted to the Taraba State capital, which is comprises of Jalingo Local Government Area and Ardo-Kola Local Government Area. The state capital is a metropolis and urban society.
It is heterogeneous in nature with a high concentration of administrative and business activities, which induces employment opportunity.
For better picture of urban society the work of a pioneer sociologist with (1938) suggested that urbanism was specially form of organization. This form of organization was characterized by relatively large dense and permanent settlement of socially heterogeneous individuals.
Mabogunze (1974) puts in that urban centres are center of innovation diffusion of new ideas seat of employment opportunities, or self-fulfillment and self-actualization.
Mabogunje ()1978, Ojo 1978 see the urban center as area known for it diverse economic opportunities available to enhance the life of its citizens. This content in lating both to employment and welfare services, technological, communication and at whole the political which Jalingo is not left aside in these criterion of urbanization.
Jalingo metropolis has a number of associated socio economic activities and social basic infrastructures within the city which pulled many rural populaces towards her. Consequently the influx of people into the city and its associated social problems necessitated the topic of this research work, “impact of rural urban migration on economic development of society with Jalingo a case study”.



1.4.3 POPULATION OF STUDY
Three hundred and fifty (350) sampling population would be derived from the overall population of the metropolis which outcome would determine the findings of this work through random sampling techniques.
1.4.4 METHOD OF DATA ANALYSIS
In carrying out this research work both descriptive and inferential analysis would be adopted through the application of tables and persons, product movement correlation co-efficient to test the hypothesis of this research work t-test would be used to test the difference of two means.
1.5   LIMITATION OF STUDY
This research work would have convered more areas than it did within the metropolis where the job is concentrated on but because of some constraint encountered by the researcher, such like financial and time and partly human character did hindered the progress of the work beyond where it would have read within the metropolis. All these constraint will narrow any generalization that is likely to be on this study “impact of rural migration in Jalingo the Taraba state capital”
1.        This research work and the information gathered will cover the period within 1992 to 2003. Despite the numerous obstacles encountered during study period the information gathered is adequate to serve for the purpose for which this work is intended.
1.6   SIGNIFICANT OF STUDY
The significant of this study will base illustrate thus, the findings of this research work would help to highlight the problem, facing the city “Jalingo dwellers within the past 12 years of it creation.
It will also help to bring to the knowledge of the city dwellers and her inter-land the possible advantages derivable by area of origin through rural urban migration.
The possible recommendation of this study would help policy makers’ fashion out dynamic measures of dealing with the problems of rural urban migration and urban congestion. Finally, this study will assist in further research work and that thus study should be made available to public for publication and enlightenment purposes so that public becomes aware of the economic impact of rural urban migration in Jalingo the Taraba state capital and other related cities.
1.5   ORGANIZATION OF STUDY
This study is structured into five chapters via;
Chapter one deals with the general introduction of the study. Here the researcher stated the research problems, objectives, significance, hypothesis of the research method of life study and scope and limitation of the study.
Chapter to covers the review of existing literature in rural urban migration. Where various theories of inflation were examined in detail. Also, some studies carried out on the topic in Nigeria were reviews in the chapter.



Chapter three is on the theoretical framework of research methodology.
Chapter four, is on data presentation, and analysis, and also interpretation of results.
Chapter five is the conclusion part of this work, which is based on summary, conclusion and some recommendation.

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