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LABOUR UNION ACTIVITIES AND EMPLOYEE WELFARE. A STUDY OF SELECTED OIL SERVICING FIRMS IN PORT HARCOURT.






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LABOUR UNION ACTIVITIES AND EMPLOYEE WELFARE. A STUDY OF SELECTED OIL SERVICING FIRMS IN PORT HARCOURT.




ABSTRACT
This research study dealt on “Labour union activities and employee welfare. The purpose of this study is to ensure that there is adequate attention given to employee in oil servicing firms. At the end of the general analysis of the responses received from the questionnaire and the result of the statistical testing, the conclusion include it was discovered that most firms do not adopt effective and adequate skill for their employees. That adopt effective and activities enhances the performance of employees. It was equally revealed that there is no significant relationship between collective bargaining and employee welfare. It was discovered that low productivity happened in oil servicing firms due to ineffective programmes a regards employee’s welfare. From the above drawn conclusion, the researcher therefore makes the following recommendations. Those, oil servicing firms’ should adopt effective and adequate welfare schemes for its employees, to enhance performance in the oil servicing firms. That, there should be no polities in cause of implementing employees’ welfare programmes in oil servicing firms that, management should make conspicuous efforts in identifying those factors that would positively influence employee’s attitude to work. Finally, it is recommended that oil servicing employees’ welfare programmes to impose the growth of the firms.


TABLE OF CONTENTS
Title Page                                                                                 i
Declaration                                                                              ii
Certification                                                                             iii
Dedication                                                                               iv
Acknowledgment                                                                     v
Abstract                                                                                   vi
CHAPTER ONE
1.0   Introduction                                                                     1
1.1   Background of the study                                                  1
1.2   Statement of the problem                                                4
1.3   Purpose of the study                                                                5
1.4   Research questions                                                          6
1.5   Research hypothesis                                                                6
1.6   Significance of the study                                                  7
1.7   Scope of the study                                                           8
1.8   Limitation of the study                                                     8
1.9   Definition of terms                                                           9
1.10 Organization of the study                                                 10
CHAPTER TWO
2.1   Introduction                                                                     12
2.2   concept of labour union activities/employee welfare               12
2.3   origins and early history                                                  15
2.4   union today, structure and policies                                 20
2.5   Employee welfare                                                             29
2.6   labour union activities                                                     31
2.7   labour union activities in oil servicing firms Nupeng and
Pengasson                                                                       33
2.8   criticism against labour union                                         38
2.9   Summary                                                                         40
CHAPTER THREE
3.1   Introduction                                                                     41
3.2   Research design                                                               42
3.3   Sampling procedure                                                                 43
3.4   Data collection method                                                    44
3.5   Population size                                                                        45
3.6   Sample size and determination                                                46
3.7   Questionnaire design                                                       47
3.8   Spearman rank order correlation coefficient                    48
CHAPTER FOUR
4.1   Introduction                                                                     50
4.2   Questionnaire distribution and collection                               51
4.3   Analysis data                                                                   52
4.4   Test of research hypotheses                                             57
CHAPTER FIVE
5.1   Introduction                                                                     75
5.2   Discussion of findings                                                     75
5.3   Conclusion                                                                      77
5.4   Recommendations                                                           78
Bibliography
Questionnaire


CHAPTER ONE
1.0   BACKGROUND OF THE STUDY
Disputes over wages and conditions of employment are bound to occur in any employer-employee relationship. Employees join a union to bargain collectively. As pointed out in Nigeria, the employer himself determined the conditions of employment. The employee could voice his dissatisfaction by resigning from his job less drastically, by going slow on performance.
The emergence of labour union and its many activities date back to 1900, when most of the commercial establishment in Nigeria were small, and were mainly foreign enterprises. They employed very few people, most were blue-collar employees. Many could neither read nor write. Above all they did not know what to expect from any job, the civil service union that was formed in 1912 employed a literate labour force, many had, had contact with labour outside Nigeria.
The personnel management function was handled by an expatriate, in time; the job was delegated to Nigerians who could speak English and the indigenous languages of the majority of the employees. Most of the Nigerian personnel officers and, in fact, some foreign personnel officers, have had no formal training in personnel administration. They tended to perform their duties in exactly the same way that the expatriates had performed them. This fact was represented by labour union organizers.
By 1940, there were over 144 labour unions and the future of labour unions in Nigeria appeared very bright. It became very fashionable to appoint a Nigeria as personal officers. It was assumed by the employers that Nigerians were best suited to deal with union leaders and their demands, especially as they were brothers. The success of a Nigerian personnel officer was measured by the extent to which he dealt with union leaders by taking them out of their demands. He was seen as a pacifist (Nwachukwu, 1988).
The introduction of labour union in the oil servicing companies, such as Wilibros, Halliburton, Schiumberger to mention but a few, was seen as measures to address the dominance of the expatriate, who are seen to be employer of labour under the umbrella of oil exploration and oil servicing there are two labour unions of petroleum and gas work nupeng, petroleum and senior staff association of Nigeria pengassan) which was inaugurated as a recognition to mediate between the workers and the employers of labour. The inauguration started with the activities of oil companies in Nigeria, but for the purpose of this study, the researcher is carried out on oil servicing firms in Port Harcourt.
The labour ordinance that permit the establishment and inauguration of these unions was set u or enacted in 1946 and subject to review and since then a lots of issues have been employer employees in an establishment. For it should be borne in mind that within this system there is at least a “Sub- system, in the public sector where the system of laobur relations is clearly distinct from that in the private sector, in the former, the government, as employer plays the most important role in industrial relations.
In the Nigeria society, the behaviour expectations of both the worker and the management personnel, as well as those of government officials are naturally different. More often than not, the actors expect a pattern of behaviour which is necessarily consistent of in conformity with practices in modern industrial management. By and large, the employer is seen as in the traditional system as a father or elder and for work this reason, usually does not accept the worker as equals (Fashoyin 1999)
1.2   STATEMENT OF THE PROBLEM
The employees as the source of every operations both manual or machinery is the touch of concern as labour union moves in to negotiate for better condition/welfare of the workers.
Considering the dangers encountered by these workers, and no worthy extrinsic reward or appraisal is not noticed, gives the concern for these elective parliamentarians to lure the employer into conditions of discussion for better conditions of employees’ welfare to improve productivity.
It is an issue of recognizing the effort of the employees, and helping them (employees) to solve the many problems that brought them or made them employees of the particular firm.  
The labour union group, as chosen members from among the workers discuss on issue that will alleviate the suffering of the workers as it is tenable across the world.
The many activities of the labour union concerning employees welfare is to bridge the gap between management and employees, to maintain a relationship, to put in place job security and normal play rise as stated in documents biding management and workers.
As observed by Nwachuwu-1988, that people are motivated to put more efforts to work, if they behave that their efforts will accomplish a desired outcome which will be followed by intrinsic and intrinsic reward that lead to satisfaction.
1.3   PURPOSE OF THE STUDY
The purpose of the study is to evaluate the influence of labour union activities on employee’s welfare.
(a)    To assess the influence of collectively bargaining on employee welfare.
(b)    To examine the influence of industrial action on employee welfare.
1.4   RESEARCH QUESTIONS
The study provides answer to the following research questions.
(a)    To what extent does collective bargaining influence employee welfare?
(b)    To what extent doe union’s industrial action influence employee welfare.
1.5   RESEARCH HYPOTHESES
The following hypotheses are postulated in their null (H0) form to address the questions raised above and to guide investigation in this study.
H01: There is no significant relationship between collective bargaining activities and employee welfare.
H02: There is no significant relationship between unions industrial action activities and employee welfare difference between labour union and employee.


1.6   SIGNIFICANCE OF THE STUDY
This study is of high importance in that it can multitude benefits of officer. This study will contribute significantly to the activities of labour union and employee welfare working in these oil servicing firms, particularly in the task of harmonizing individual workers needs and expectations and the pre-determined organizational goals and objectives.
It would enhance their sensibility bringing to limelight the complexities of human behaviour at work and to effectively devise relevant multinational tools to redirect the drives within the employees towards the attainment of corporate goals and objectives. By so doing, this study will be of double benefits in that it would enhance the effective of multifunctional system within Nigerian workers and organizations and also, promoting managerial efficiency.
Also, the findings and suggestion in this work would help to produce a vibrant, highly productive and dependable workforce which will in the long run boast the economic performance of the productivity.
Finally, the study would contribute immensely to existing relationship, and by so doing provide a dependable basic for the takeoff of further research in this field of study by other students, researcher and academics.
1.7   SCOPE OF THE STUDY
This study is on ‘Labour Union Activities and Employee Welfare’ a study of selected oil servicing firms in Port Harcourt.
Ordinarily, a study of this nature ought to cover every oil servicing firm in the country but owning to time and financial constraints, the scope of is limited to oil servicing firms that have operational headquarters in Port Harcourt using (Wilibros, Schlumberger) as the case of study in Port Harcourt, Rivers State.
1.8   LIMITATION OF THE STUDY
Like any other research, this study suffered some degrees of constraints/limitations.
Firstly, there was dearth of relevant materials in the form of textbooks, journals, magazines, and monographs at the initial stage of this exercise. Also, some of the respondents to the questionnaire either filled wrongly, and some did not return their questionnaire.
Secondly, there were financial constraints owning to increase in transport cost to administer and collect the questionnaire. There were a lot of phone calls and photocopies to make.
Thirdly, time was another major constraint. The researcher while caring out this work had classroom lecturers to attend and exams to prepare coupled with other personal commitments.
However, despite all these limitations, the researcher still had to complete the work.
1.9   DEFINITION OF TERMS
Labour Union Activities
These are general programmes as regards employees’ welfare such as collective bargaining, negotiation, settling of disputes put together by this body to improve or realize the expectation of employees.

Employee Welfare
These are incentives realized to enhance the workman drive to improving performance.
Collective bargaining
This is an agreement realized by a recognize labour union and management team on behalf of the employees, in an organization.
Industrial Action
This is sanction strategy put in place to address the ugly situation that seems to exists in a given firm(s)
1.10 ORGANIZATION OF THE STUDY
This study is organized in five chapters. Chapter one is the introduction; it consist of the following sub-titles, background of the study, statement of the problem, purpose of the study, research questions, hypotheses, significance of the study, scope/limitation of the study, definition of terms, and organization of the study.
Chapter two is the “Literature Review’, it is an overview of related literature expressing the views of other authors and writers on the subject matter;
Chapter three is the “Research Methodology” explaining the research design, sampling techniques, data collection, and analysis method.
Chapter four is the “Presentation and Analysis of Data”. Here the hypothesis formulated in chapter one would be tested as a basis for the acceptance and rejection of the hypothesis. The study is concluded in chapter five as “summary conclusion and recommendation”, This is followed immediately with Biography and appendices. 


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