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MANAGING CHANGE IN THE NIGERIA WORK ENVIRONMENT; A STUDY OF SELECTED MANUFACTURING FIRMS IN RIVERS STATE.






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MANAGING CHANGE IN THE NIGERIA WORK ENVIRONMENT; A STUDY OF SELECTED MANUFACTURING FIRMS IN RIVERS STATE.




ABSTRACT
A major issue of interest to manage and consultants is the management of change. Today’s organizations are facing a great challenge as a result of the break with traditional authority, the growth of socialist ideology, economic affluence and the accelerated of change and developments. Changes within an organization have seriously undermined the traditional relationship between organizations and their members. This had led to a crisis for organizations that may only be resolved by the evolution of new organizational forms. Managing change is process of introducing, crating and confronting needed changes as to make it possible for organization to become or remain viable, to adopt to new conditions to solve problems and to learn from experiences. The major challenge confronting managers and change agent in the management of change is the rate of resistance. Since changes within the organization resolves around people, technologies, process and structures, there are bound to be a resistance from employees. The resistance may occur when the two parties disagree on the advisability of change and this would not be in the best interest of the organization. This occurs when the two parties are at different levels and functional areas of organization (i.e. low personal tolerance for change). However, one of the most effective ways of introducing change obtaining complete acceptance, is to show the employees what is in there for them. The introduction of new technology for example would mean the selection and retraining of dedicated employees. This training would carry with it increased responsibility. For all employees, increase in production would mean increased ability of the organization to pay high wages or improve employee welfare services. A new process may reduce too much work for the present staff and reduce unwanted over time.


TABLE OF CONTENTS
Title Page                                                                                 i
Abstract                                                                                   ii
CHAPTER ONE; INTRODUCTION
1.1   background of the study                                                  1
1.2   statement of the problem                                                 4
1.3   purpose of the study                                                                6
1.4   research question                                                            7
1.5   research hypothesis                                                         8
1.6   significance of the study                                                  9
1.7   scope of the study                                                            9
1.8   limitation of the study                                                     10
1.9   definition of terms                                                           12
CHAPTER TWO:LITERATURE REVIEW
2.1   Introduction                                                                     13
2.2   definition of organizational change                                  14
2.3   types of change                                                                        16
2.4   purpose of change                                                           19
2.5   forces of change                                                               23
2.5.1 environmental forces                                                      24
2.5.2 internal forces                                                                 25
2.6   the causes of change                                                               26
2.7   theories of change                                                            28
2.8   change agent                                                                   33
2.8.1 the role of the human resources (personnel) manager    35
2.8.2 skills for change agents                                                  38
2.9   climate for change                                                           39
2.10 planned changes                                                             42
2.11 operational analysis                                                         44
2.12 how to introduce change                                                 45
2.13 disagreement on advisability of change                           48
2.14 dealing with resistance to change                                    49
2.15 implementing change                                                      53
2.16 resistance to change                                                                55
2.17 overcoming resistance to change                                     59
CHAPTER THREE; RESEARCH METHODOLOGY
3.1   Introduction                                                                     71
3.2   research design                                                                        72
3.3   sampling procedure                                                         73
3.4   data collection method                                                    75
3.5   questionnaire design                                                               76
3.6   operational measures of valuables                                   76
3.7   data analysis techniques                                                 78
References                                                                              
CHAPTER ONE
1.1   BACKGROUND OF THE STUDY
A major issue of interest to managers and consultants is the management of change. Today’s organizations are facing a great challenge as a result of the break with traditional authority, the growth of socialist ideology, economic affluence and the accelerated rate of change and developments. Changes within an organization have seriously undermined the traditional relationship between organizations and their members. This had led to a crisis for organizations that may only be resolved by the evolution of new organizational forms.
Organizational change is a large and diverse body of concepts, tools and techniques for improving organizations effectiveness. French and Bell (1999) posited that it is concerned with the vitalizing energizing, activities and renewing of organizations through technical and human resources. Organizational change and development is a long range effort to improve an organizations problem solving and renewal processes, particularly culture of organization with special emphasis on the culture of formal work teams. (Alan, 1995).
Managing change is a process of introducing, creation and confronting needed changes as to make it possible for organization to become or remain viable, to adapt to new conditions to solve problems and to learn from experiences. Change management involves commonly used and quite specific techniques that can be used as a basis for an operational implementation. It is intervention activities which have been called the human process approaches to planned change.
From the rate of change and development in the organization, the organizations are composed of four interacting systems: (a) people (b) technologies (c) process (d) structure. Organizational change can be viewed from two perspectives, the human processed perspective and techno-structural perspective (Margulies and Wallace, 1994). Unlike the human processes, which consist of a series of techniques, focusing on people and processes, the techno-structural perspective is mainly concerned with technologies and structures. The human process approaches grew out of techniques developed in early laboratory activities conducted by the National Training Laboratories (NTL). The human process approaches can be divided into three basic classes:
1.     Group Development Intervention
2.     Inter Group Relations Development and;
1.     Survey Feedback Interventions.
The techno-structural system
1.     The Socio-Technical system
2.     Job Design and;
3.     Job Enrichment
The process of managing organizational change usually involves change agents (Argyris, 2001). These agents are primarily concerned with interacting, creating and implementing the required changes so as to make it possible for organizations to remain viable. The major challenge confronting change agents in the management of change is the rate of resistance. Since changes within the organization resolves around the people, technologies, process and structures, there are bound to be a resistance from employees. The resistance may occur when two parties disagree on the advisability of change would not be in the best interest of the organization. This occurs when the two parties are at different levels and functional areas of organization (i.e. low personal tolerance for change).
Before change is introduced, there are certain conditions that must be undertaken. Bennis (2004) stated the following conditions as necessary for the introduction of change and these include;
1.     Communication
2.     The change must be useful
3.     Empathic consideration
4.     Employee participation
5.     It should be timely; gradual and;
6.     It should be given positive reinforcement
Management will accomplish a desired change if they recognize human limitation and try a deal with them. Every effort must be made to relax anxiety which characterized changes. Much of the anxiety is a fear of the unknown, not knowing what is going to happen or how he will fit into a new position or under a new supervisor.
Once an organization has decided to implement a change for development, there are certain steps or method which they must follow. According to Warren (1998), the ways of carrying out change includes:
1.     Empirical rational method, which involves giving the employees the reasons behind the contemplated change.
2.     Normative re-educative method, which aims at changing people’s attitudes and patterns of behaviour or normative orientation to the new pattern, and;
3.     The application of power to obtain compliance which involves using authority and power to obtain compliance in the case of stiff opposition from one or a group of people in the organization.
In pursuance to the above method, many organizations in the manufacturing industry mapped out their own strategies in managing change in their work environment. It is in view of this that this study intends to examine the strategies used by organizations in managing change in their work environment using selected manufacturing companies as a survey study.
1.2   STATEMENT OF THE PROBLEM
One of the major problems facing Nigerian organizations particularly those in the manufacturing sector is poor management of change. There is a silent crisis between organization and its members which arise as a result of the high rate of resistance brought about by change. The survival of our organizations therefore depend on how well managers and change agents acknowledge and understand this crisis, and hence mapped out effectives strategies in managing change in their work environment. Managers and change agents as an instrument for meeting societal and individuals demand need to be sensitive to change in the expectations and demands from both quarters.
In most of the Nigerian organizations of which those in the manufacturing sector are no exception, there has been silent crisis which has negatively affected employees’ performance/productivity as well as organizational effectiveness in terms of achieving its goal and objectives. Recent reports have it that the major issue that has led to this kind of crisis is the introduction of change. Most managers and change agents introduce change without seeking for employee participation. They do not event communicate the needed change to all those employees who may be affected by the change. This has led to the high rate of resistance from employees which consequently lead to internal (organization) crisis.
However, one of the most effective ways of introducing change and obtaining complete acceptance is to show the employees what is in there for them. The introduction of new technology for example, would mean the selection and retraining of dedicated employees. This training would carry with it increase in pay and possibly promotion which means increased responsibility. For all employees, increase in production would mean increased ability of the organization to pay high wages and improve employee welfare services. This strategy has been commonly used by the advanced nations but it yet to be fully appreciated by Nigerian organizations. It is based on this problem that warranted the researcher to examine the strategies of managing change in the Nigerian work environment using selected manufacturing companies as a point of reference.
1.3   PURPOSE OF THE STUDY
The purpose of this study include thus:
1.     To determine companies in managing change in their work environment?
2.     To find out whether there is any difference in the strategy used by manufacturing companies in rivers state in managing change for better organizational performance/competitiveness.
3.     To find out if there is any significance relationship between the strategies used by manufacturing companies in introducing change and the rate of resistance from employees?
4.     To ascertain the extent there is significance relationship between the strategy used by manufacturing companies in implementing change and organizational effectiveness?
5.     To know whether the introduction and implementation of change affect employees performance/productivity?
6.     To find out the problems or difficulties encountered by manufacturing companies in the process of introducing and implementing change?
7.     To identify the causes reason for the resistance to change and how they can be overcome?
8.     To find out whether employee participation is an important factor in successful management of change?
1.4   RESEARCH QUESTIONS
Based on the statement of the problem and the purpose of the study, the following questions emerged:
1.          What are the strategies used by Nigerian manufacturing organizations in managing change in their work environment?
2.          Is there any significant differences in the strategy used by manufacturing companies in rivers state in managing change for better organizational  performance/
competitiveness?
3.     To find out if there is any significant relationship between the strategies used by manufacturing companies in introducing change and the rate of resistance from employees.
4.     To what extent is there significant relationship between the strategy used by manufacturing companies in implementing change and organizational effectiveness?
5.     To what extend do the introduction and implementation of change affect employees’ performance/productivity?
6.     What are the problems or difficulties encountered by manufacturing companies in the process of introducing and implementing change?
7.     What are the reasons for the resistance to change and how can they be overcome?
8.     Does employee participation assures the successful management of change?


1.5   RESEARCH HYPOTHESES
In order to have a foresight of what the outcome of this study would be, the following hypotheses are postulated:
H01: There is no significant relationship between the strategy used by manufacturing companies in introducing change and the rate of resistance from employees.
H02: There is no significant relationship between the strategy used by manufacturing companies in implementing change and organizational effectiveness.
H03: The introduction and implementation of change do not significantly affect employee’s performance/productivity?
1.6   SIGNIFICANCE OF THE STUDY
This study is highly significant in the sense that it will make new contributions to the existing body of knowledge in the field of organizational development. By so doing, it will help create awareness on the need for management in the manufacturing sector to introduce changes into their operations in line with changes in the external environment.
Managers and change agents would find this study relevant as it will expose to them the strategies used in introducing and implementing change. It will also recommended to them the best strategy or method of introducing and implementing change in order to avoid resistance from employees and hence successful change management.
This study will in addition, provide much needed information on the management of change which management in manufacturing companies will find quite useful in order to remain competitive.  It is expected to radically alter the way in which manufacturing companies manage change in their work environment. It will help establish the fact that it is not just enough to introduce change, but that certain factors have to be taken into consideration to ensure its successful implementation.
The findings of this study will provide a background for future research in related areas of study, which would be of immense benefit to researchers, authors, writers, students, and other academicians.

1.7   SCOPE OF THE STUDY
This study ought to have covered all the manufacturing companies in Nigerian, but since the population would be too large to be studied, given the time and financial resources at the disposal of the researcher, the study has been limited in terms of scope of selected manufacturing companies in Rivers State.
1.8   LIMITATION OF THE STUDY
A fundamental problem encountered while undertaking this study arose from the suspicious and non challant attitude of some of the respondents. Consequently, while some of the respondents were forth coming in granting audience to the researcher, others refused or heisted for fear of exposing their change strategy to competitors in the industry. They resorted to using delaying tactics like “come tomorrow” date which they did not honour.
Also, there was financial constraint. The finance at the disposal of the researcher was too insufficient to pay repeated visitations to the respondents, sourcing for materials, purchases and photocopy of materials as well as finance for typing and binding. This constituted a great limitation to the researcher in the course of undertaking this study.
There was also a problem of time. The time available to the researcher to extensively conduct this study was grossly inadequate because the researcher had other academic activities to attend to at school, which now had to be combined with the time set outside due to time and financial inadequacy that made the study to be limited to selected manufacturing companies in Rivers State only.
1.9   DEFINITION OF TERMS
For the purpose of clarification and better understanding of this study, it is necessary to present the definition of certain terms as used in this study.
Change
Change is making things different (Robbins, 2000; 543). It also implies moving from the status quo. Webster’s dictionary defines change as “to cause to turn from one state to another”. Change as used in this study implies the introduction of something new, i.e. in method of preforming a task, organizational structure, process or any other form of development.
Management
This is the process of getting things done through people. It can be more scientifically defined as the co-ordination of all the resources of an organization through the process of planning, organizing, directing and controlling in order to attain organizational objectives.
Organizational Change
This simply refers to those changes that take place within an organization; it revolves around the people, technologies, processes and structure.
Managing Change
This is the process of introducing, creating and implementing needed changes as to make it possible for organization to become remain viable, to adapt to new condition to solve problems and to learn from experiences.

Change Strategies
This refers to the different ways, methods or techniques used by organizations in introducing and implementing change.
Change Agents
These are persons who act as catalysts and assume the responsibility for managing change activities.





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