PROPOSAL DEFENSE ON THE EFFECT OF POSITIVE AND UPWARD SPIRALS ON EMPLOYEES CREATIVITY (A STUDY OF SOME SELECTED FIRMS IN RIVERS STATE)
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PROPOSAL DEFENSE ON THE EFFECT OF POSITIVE AND UPWARD SPIRALS ON EMPLOYEES CREATIVITY
(A STUDY OF SOME SELECTED FIRMS IN RIVERS STATE)
1.1 CONTENT OF THE PROBLEM
In an attempt to gain a competitive advantage organizations are now focusing on enhancing their employees’ creativity, and not merely developing their technical competencies and skills (Sternberg, 2013). In a changing world and economy, the role of creativity in the workplace is becoming ever more prominent. However, a recent report by the Confederation of British Industry found that not enough firms are fully exploiting the business ideas of their employees and are not making the most of their skills (Robinson, 2013). Whilst firms may be encouraging creativity, the implementation and management of the ideas generated is lacking. Consequently, many companies are deemed to be falling short of their potential, creating an innovation gap (Sternberg, 2013).
Organizations are findings that, as markets become saturated and competition gets stronger, it is increasingly necessary to find novel or innovative approaches to business problems and issues. They may look for this creativity in their staff or may even recruit of the organization by being seen to be creative and cutting edge, and it can improve productivity and efficiency by solving current problems or business obstacles (Wladyslaw, 2013).
Of course, the concept of employee creativity is an elusive one. How can one hope to enhance creativity if it is not firs defined and measured? This research work will provide an overview of the concept and ways in which it may be measured and enhanced in the workplace. Kaufman and Beghetto (2013) posits that there are many aspects to creativity, but one definition could include ‘the ability to see existing objects or processes and combine them in different ways for new purpose or to solve existing issues’. Therefore, a simple definition uncombined elements; from art, music and invention to household chores, this is part of the nature of being creative. Another way of approaching the concept of creativity is by seeing it as a process of exploring the way things are interrelated (Boden, 2012).
‘Creativity is the ability to generate novel and useful ideas and solutions to everyday problems and challenges’. Creative thought can be divided into two types of reasoning: (Gabora, 2007).
Ø Divergent thinking: the intellectual ability to think of many original, diverse, and elaborate ideas.
Ø Convergent thinking: the intellectual ability to logically evaluate critique and choose the best idea from a selection of ideas.
Both abilities are required for creative output. Divergent thinking is essential to the novelty of creative products whereas convergent thinking is fundamental to the appropriateness (Kozebtl, Beghetto, and Runco, 2010).
The concept of creativity may be delineated into three dimensions; the person, the product and the process. (Mumford, 2013): Person-based-there are many ways to measure or infer creativeness directly from an individual. For example:
Personality Measures- Looking at certain personality traits or characteristics associated with a creative mind, e.g. intelligence, confidence, wit, originally, informality and tolerance to ambiguity. However, psychologists have been trying to find the ‘one personality profile of the creative person for many years without any real solid evidence.
Biographical Inventories- The use of biographical data. For example, linking family and educational history to determine the potential sources of an individual’s creativity, personal interests or hobbies that may indicate a creative mind, or even personal relationships. Creativity Ability- The direct measurement of creativeness by example, the unusual uses’ test, and other exercises in creative thinking or elaboration (Peter, 2009).
Product-based-an examination of the creative processes employed by an individual to come up with solutions to problems or design novel products (e.g. feelings experienced before/during/after the innovation). All people have the potential to be creative but those who are recognized as being creative have certain awareness or insight that others don’t. without the abilities needed to be creative, it is highly unlikely that someone will solve ad creative problem. However, just because an individual has an ability to do something does not necessarily mean that they will do it. It is for this reason that employers resort to various technique to enhance their employees creativity.
In the light of these, Barbara (2013) averred that the positive emotions and upwards spirals could be used to achieve the positivism on employee creativity in the work environment via its broaden-and-build theory and emotional intelligence theory.
The broaden-and-build theory (Fredrickson, 2001) predicts that positive emotions are useful in several ways. They guide present behaviour, by broadening one’s attention and cognition, setting the stage for creative, explorative, and innovation pursuits. As well, positive emotions build personal and social resources to help and- build theory, emotional intelligence theory marks the intersection between two fundamental components of psychology: the cognitive and the emotional systems. By linking the two theories, it becomes apparent that the knowledge and use of positive emotions comprise an important skill set for effective personal and social functioning.
Given the beneficial effects of positive emotions and emotional intelligence on physical and psychological well-being, it may be useful to modify current theories of emotional intelligence to include a discussion of positive emotions. To date, most research and theory about emotional intelligence focuses on recognizing, understanding and managing negative emotions in the service of effective of how positive emotions may be important to the construct of emotional intelligence. However, the ability to recognize and use positive emotions to manage negative circumstance can have beneficial effects to one’s well-being. Thus, understanding these benefits and using positive emotions to one’s advantage during times of stress may exemplify emotional intelligence.
It is likely that an emotionally intelligent person can fully appreciate the advantages of positive emotions. One of the main determinants of the intelligent management of emotions is having accesses to one’s own emotional life (Mayer and Salovey, 1993). This involves the ability to draw on one’s feelings as means of understanding and guiding one’s behaviour. However, our data also suggest that emotionally intelligent skills might be taught and interventions developed to promote them. In other words, a person may learn to develop internal models of emotion that include standard of effective emotional functioning. More specifically, interventions may be used to teach individuals how to effectively utilize their knowledge of positive emotions in opportune moments to optimize their well-being as well as their personal and social growth.
In sum, investigating the broaden-and-build theory of positive emotions in conjunction with emotional intelligence theory provides greater insight into the reasons why certain emotionally-intelligent individuals are able to effectively function within society while others may not fare as well. These individuals may possess complex understanding of their positive emotions, and use this knowledge to resourcefully adapt in response to negative stimuli. It is also conceivable that emotionally intelligent individuals proactively cultivate emotions as paths towards development and growth, a direct implication of the broaden- and- build theory. Thus, positive emotions are key resources that should be recognized for their worth- while positive emotions are a part of everyday life; they are not merely experiences that produce momentary pleasures. Indeed, they also appear essential for effective and optimal personal and social functioning.
From the forgoing, we can see that little has been said by scholars on how broaden thought action repertories and emotional wellbeing can be used to enhance employee creativity thought, brainstorming and innovativeness via divergent thinking and convergent thinking prior to the identified knowledge gap in the area binding the topic discussed. The reason may be explained by either disciplinary concept of the researchers in the context which the study was conducted. This work therefore, tends to explain how we can use broaden-and-build and emotional intelligence to enhance persons-based creativity, process-based creativity and product-based creativity so as to fill the gap.
1.2 STATEMENT OF THE PROBLEM
There has been a lot of bottleneck on organizations in Africa trying to conceptualize effect of positive emotions and upward spirals on employee creativity. This is because the broaden though and build factors such as love, joy, happiness, though action repertoire, excitement, hope, amusement, pride, inspiration, interest, gratitude, emotional wellbeing, life balancing the socio- economic and cultural influence that poses threats and challenges to employee manhood.
This has created certain manifestations in the organizations such as poor maintenance in factories, obsolescence, deterioration, demurrage, low productivity and profitability, low employee morale and loyalty etc.
However, the negligence of the positive emotions and upward spiral syndromes in organizations has led to diminishing in employee emotional intelligence. This has jeopardized employee creative capability prior to person- based creativity, process based creativity and product based creativity.
If proper maintenance culture on employee creativity is not integrated into the activities of the organizational settings, it will detriment into a negative effect such as loses in the profitability, decline in growth, low divergent and convergent thinking, and poor innovativeness, psychomotor and cognitive ability.
The major problem firms’ encounter is aligned its emotional intelligence and broaden-and-build towards enhancing their productivity, profitability, strategic change, innovativeness measures and growth so as to prevent losses in processes-based creativity, product-based creativity and person-based creativity towards achieving corporate success
Another fundamental challenge firms encountered is to maintain consistency and proficiency in the upward spirals effect on emotional intelligence so as to stimulate happiness, mental health, joy, and love on the dynamism of process changes in the business environment.
In the tails of these, this study will address the fundamental challenge that poses threats to the application of broaden thought and emotional intelligence in antecedent to the employee creativity.
Furthermore, the conceptual variables in collaboration with their sub-indicators are shown below in a framework model below.
CONCEPTUALIZED FRAMEWORK ON THE VARIABLE ON POSITIVE EMOTIONS AND UPWARD SPIRALS AND EMPLOYEE CREATIVITY
Independent Variable Dependent Variable
1.3 PURPOSE OF THE STUDY
Generally, this work tends to investigate the relationship between the effect of positive emotions and upward spirals on employee creativity.
In a more specific sense the purpose of the study include the following;
1. To examine if there exist any significant relationship between broaden-and-build and person-based creativity in the organization.
2. To examine if there exist any significant relationship between broaden-and-build and product-based creativity in the organization.
3. To examine if there exist any significant relationship between broaden-and-build and process-based creativity in the organization.
4. To examine if there exist any significant relationship between emotional intelligence and person-based creativity in the organization.
5. To examine if there exist any significant relationship between emotional intelligence and product-based creativity in the organization.
6. To examine if there exist any significant relationship between emotional intelligence and process-based creativity in the organization.
7. To examine if there exist any significant relationship between corporate culture on positive emotions and employee’s creativity in the organization.
1.4 RESEARCH QUESTIONS
This study addressed issues relating to the following pertinent questions emerging within the domain of study problems. However, the research questions are itemized below as; viz:
1. To what extent is there any significant relationship between broaden-and-build and person-based creativity in the organization?
2. To what extent is there any significant relationship between broaden-and-build and product-based creativity in the organization?
3. To what extent is there any significant relationship between broaden-and-build and process-based creativity in the organization?
4. To what extent is there any significant relationship between emotional intelligence and person-based creativity in the organization?
5. To what extent is there any significant relationship between emotional intelligence and product-based creativity in the organization?
6. To what extent is there any significant relationship between emotional intelligence and process-based creativity in the organization?
7. To what extent is there any significant relationship between corporate culture influence on positive emotions and employee’s creativity in the organization?
To proffer useful answers to the research questions and realize the study objectives, the following hypotheses are stated in their null form, such as:
H01: There is significant relationship between broaden-and-build and person-based creativity in the organization.
H02: There is no significant relationship between broaden-and-build and person-based creativity in the organization.
H03: There is no significant relationship between broaden-and-build and process-based creativity in the organization.
H04: There is no significant relationship between emotional intelligence and person-based creativity in the organization.
H05: There is no significant relationship between emotional intelligence and product-based creativity in the organization
H06: There is no significant relationship between emotional intelligence and process-based creativity in the organization
H07: There is no significant relationship between positive emotions and employee creativity in the organization.
1.6 SIGNIFICANCE OF THE STUDY
The significance of the study is frame on the policy maker, researcher, human resource analyst, organizational psychologist scholars/experts and the organization.
Policy Maker: Guides the stakeholders and corporate establishment in formulating policy and decision making in antecedent to the comparative dynamism of socio-cultural influence on broaden thought action repertories, upwards impression, mental health and wellness, life balancing, joy, happiness, love and excitement.
Researcher: Investigates the effects of positive emotions and upward spirals on employees productivity in public and private organization in Nigeria prior to broaden-and-build theory and private emotional intelligence in alignment with enhancing organizational productivity, person-based creativity, product-based creativity and process-based creativity towards achieving her corporate goals and objectives.
Human Resource Analyst: Ascertain prominent issue on an in –depth analysis of workplace policy, procedures and strategic decision making of efficiency in the discrimination precept.
Organization Psychologist: Shows how the works of Barbara Fredrickson could utilizes joyfulness, ,mental health, happiness, love and excitement, healthy wellbeing can enhance employee thinking capability, innovativeness etc in the work environment prior to socio-cultural influences.
Maintenance Cultural Experts: Analyses the impact of organizational culture sub-indicators such as power distance, uncertainty avoidance and individualism vs collectivism in an organizational settings.
Management: Utilizes the concept of the positive emotions and upward spirals to formulate strategies on prior to the determination of investment opportunities and reduces the bottleneck on that affects organizational effectiveness and efficiency.
Also, this research work will be beneficial to the SME’s capital market, money market, oil sector, multi-nationals, political, sector, legal adviser, CBN and financial institution.
1.7 SCOPE OF THE STUDY
The conceptual scope of the study is grounded on the investigating the effect of positive emotions and upward spirals on employee creativity in alignment with enhancing broaden-and-build and emotional intelligence prior to the product-based creativity, process-based creativity and person-based creativity.
The theoretical scope of the study is centered on psychologist Barbara Fredrickson (2013), who has spent more than 20 years investigating the relatively uncharted terrain of positive emotions, which she says can make us healthier and happier if we take time to cultivate them in liaison the various modern scholars on the context.
Whereas, the geographical scope of this study is centered on selected firms in Rivers State. Thus, these are;
1. Pabod Breweries
2. Nigeria Bottling Company (NBC)
3. Dophi Nig Ltd
4. Tibal Table Waters
5. First Aluminum
Data is generated from individual members for the study unit. Individual members from the firms mentioned above were the main unit under study.
Level of Analysis
There are two level of analysis being the micro and macro levels of research (Sullivan, 2011). The micro is the face to face social interaction which occurs among individuals. The focus is on individuals while the macro level of analysis concentrates on groups which are a large scale social structure. For the purpose of this study, the micro is adopted using the individual as our level of analysis.
1.8 LIMITATION OF THE STUDY
Morecover, Baridam (2001), averred that every study has certain limitation which fall short of the ideas which the researchers has established or recognized. Knowledge of these limitations is essential for an interpretation of the findings. And it was really limited because getting the response for the questionnaire from all the respondents, hence the sample size is reduced unavoidable and the analysis of the data is based on observed population not on expected population. Also, not all respondent returned their questionnaires and some were bias. Also, certain financial and logistics constraints where encountered.
1.9 DEFINITION OF TERMS
v Person-Based Creativity: There are many ways to measure or infer creativeness directly from an individual.
v Personality Measure: Looking at certain personality traits or characteristics associated with a creative mind.
v Creative Ability: The direct measurement of creativeness by testing and individual with various established tests.
v Product-Based Creativity: A more objective measure involving the assessment of an individual’s pervious work for creativity and innovation.
v Process-Based Creativity: An examination of the creative processes employed by an individual to come up with solutions to problems or design novel products.
v Output: This is an auxiliary output measures to enhance productivity pre-determined results.
v Productivity: This is the ratio of a volume measure of output to a volume measure of input use.
v Broaden-and-Build: It aims to stimulate thought action and repertories towards positivism of employees wellbeing, happiness, joy, love, mental health wellness and excitement.
v Emotional Intelligence: It is the stock of reasoning faculty and intelligent quotient that is attached to individual feelings.
v Creativity: This is the ability to generate novel and useful ideas and solutions to everyday problems and challenges.
v Divergent Thinking: The intellectual ability to think of many original, diverse, and elaborate ideas.
v Convergent Thinking: The intellectual ability to logically evaluate critique and choose the best idea from a selection of ideas.
1.10 ORGANIZATION OF THE STUDY
This study is organized as follows. Chapter one is the introduction and is composed of the overview problem statement, research purpose, research questions, research hypothesis, significance of the study, scope and limitation of the study.
Chapter two covers the literature review. The researchers made an attempt to explore what previous researchers have done.
Chapter three is the researcher methodology; it covers the research design population, sampling produces, data collection method, data analysis techniques etc.
Chapter four is data presentation, analysis and interpretation.
Chapter five concerned with discussions of findings, conclusion and recommendation.