THE EFFECT OF JOB DESIGN EMPLOYEE SATISFACTION: A STUDY OF SELECTED MANUFACTURING FIRMS IN RIVERS STATE.
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THE EFFECT OF JOB DESIGN EMPLOYEE SATISFACTION: A STUDY OF SELECTED MANUFACTURING FIRMS IN RIVERS STATE.
TABLE OF CONTENTS
Title Page i
Table of content ii
1.1 Background of the study 1
1.2 Statement of the study 3
1.3 Purpose of the study 8
1.4 Research questions 9
1.5 Research hypotheses 9
1.5 Research hypotheses 9
1.6 Significance of the study 10
1.7 Scope and limitation of the study 11
1.8 Organization of the study 11
1.9 Operational definition of terms 12
CHAPTER TWO: LITERATURE REVIEW
2.0 Introduction 15
2.1 Concept of job Design 17
2.2 Concept of employee satisfaction 19
2.3 Theoretical framework 20
2.3.1 theories of job design 20
2.3.2 Theories of job satisfaction 22
2.4 review of hypotheses development 25
2.5 relationship between job design and job satisfaction 27
2.6 relationship between job satisfaction and organization
2.7 Relationship between job design and organization
2.8 Relationship between job satisfaction and organizational
2.9 Moderating influence of technology on the relationship between job design and employee satisfaction 32
2.10 Possible indication of job satisfaction 36
2.11 possible indication of job dissatisfaction 40
2.12 forms of job design 42
2.13 job characteristic model 45
2.14 emerging new forms of job design 54
2.15 factors affecting job design 57
2.16 Effect of job design on employee satisfaction 59
2.17 benefits of job design to employee and organization 63
2.18 Existing gap in the literature 63
2.19 summary of literature review 64
3.0 Introduction 72
3.1 research design 72
3.2 Sample size and sampling technique 73
3.3 Population of the study 73
3.4 Data collected method 74
3.4.1 Questionnaire design 75
3.4.2 Interview 75
3.5 Operational measures of the variables 75
3.6 Reliability and validity of research instruments 77
3.7 Data analysis technique 78
1.1 BACKGROUND OF THE STUDY
The concept of job design and its effects on employees job satisfaction is not a recent phenomenon in research (Hom and Kinicki, 2001; Lu and Lin 2002; Bernhard and Sverke, 2003). Jobs in any organization are designed following established procedures. These procedures were arranged or design by managers in the organization who are professionals or experts in any specific job type. The more these procedures save time, effort, and improve output quality, the better for the organization and their employees as it increase employee job satisfaction, and reduces labor turnover in any organization. Job design is a very important issue in human relations. After all, designing work so employee achieve a sense of task identity and task significant and are provided with skill variety, autonomy and feedback stimulate motivation and by extension, job satisfaction (Hodgetts and Hagar, 2005).
The organization of a job and its attendant tasks can complement positive physical work station design, or detract from it. In this regards, Hackman and Oldman (1976), incorporated into their research on job design, as variables, needs of individuals and the intensity with individuals strive to satisfy such needs. Skill variety enables a worker to vary the task performed and to change position at various times during the day. This variation provides a change in mental activity as well as physical well/being through movement and changes in body posture. It provides some variety of pace, methods location and skills. Job autonomy is the extent to which an individual can control his or her work. When management set rigid standards, organize the work to last detail, prescribes methods and supervises the work closely, job autonomy is low however, if after objective and general rules are set and employees are free to set their own pace and do that job as their think best, then job autonomy is high.
The above dimension can be combined into an overall measure of job enrichment. Job enrichment attempts to increase both the number of the tasks a worker has over the job. To implement job enrichment HRM must remove some controls from the job, delegate more authority to employees, and structure the work in complete natural units. These changes increases employee satisfaction and satisfied employees tend to be more productive, creative and committed to the organization.
Job satisfaction is one of the most studied concepts in the social and behavioral science. Unfortunately, the numerous research literatures on the topic have not resolved some important and enduring questions that continue to puzzle the researchers and managers in a variety of organizations.
Job satisfaction is defined as “extent to which people like (satisfaction) or dislike (dissatisfaction) their job (Spector, 1997). This definition suggests job satisfaction is a general or global affective reaction that individual holds that their job. Most scholars recognize that job satisfaction is a global concept comprised of various facets such as employee satisfaction with job itself, pay, supervisors, and co-workers (judge et al., 2003). Satisfy employee tend to be more productive, creative and committed to their employees, and recent studies have shown a direct correlation between staff satisfaction and patient satisfaction Kaldenberg and Regrut, 1999).
However, while Black (1978), opined that effective use of human resources is the key to organizational productive, Nwackukwu (1988), averred that employees productivity is a function of adequate strength and ability yet the productivity will fall below expected level because of job dissatisfaction.
1.2 STATEMENT OF THE STUDY
In Nigeria, the number of manufacturing firms has increased substantially; it is a pit to say that rapid increase has not matched by a corresponding increase in efficiency, high productivity and employee satisfaction as revealed by probes into some of these manufacturing firms. It is against the background of alleged and proven cases of poor performance, low productivity, high levels of absenteeism, staff turnover and employee dissatisfaction with their jobs in some manufacturing firms that the researcher deemed it necessary to joint in the search for solutions to these problems.
The ways in which employee’s job or tasks are organized have direct impact on his/her mental and physical health, as well as on job performance. The organization of a job and its attendant tasks can complement positive physical work station design thus, if a worker is satisfied, he or she will be more productive, creative and committed to his organization. Hence every organization strives to design employee’s job in such a way that will help in the attainment of organizational goal. Enriched jobs have high levels of skill variety, task identity and task significance which influence the extent to which an individual experiences a job as meaningful. Autonomy in the job influences the extent to which an individual believes he or she is responsible for the outcome of job execution. Feedback in the job increases the individual’s knowledge of the actual result of work activities.
Unfortunately, some manufacturing firms design employee jobs in such a way that it lacks or have low level of skill variety, task identity, task significance, autonomy and feedback about results; therefore, leaving the employee with the option of being dissatisfaction while doing their jobs.
Skill variety is the employee’s proficiency that enables him to vary the tasks performed and to change positive position at various times during the day. This variation provides a change in mental activity as well as physical well-being through movement and changes in body posture. It provides some variety of pace, method, location and skill. But some manufacturing firms design a job in such a way that it lacks low level of skill variety, employee perform a small number of repetitive activities, without variety of pace, method, location and skill. Therefore, leaving employee with the option of dissatisfied.
Task identity is all about, how task should fit together to make a complete job since this gives the employee a sense of doing a whole job from the beginning to the end and with visible outcome. One the other hand jobs in some manufacturing firms involve only a limited piece of work and hence scores low on tasks identity and leads to employee job dissatisfaction.
Task significances how the job perceived to have a substantial impact on the lives of other people. People like to feel that they have achieved something meaningful during their working day. It is important for them to see them importance of the tasks that are performed and their contribution to the organization. But in some manufacturing firms the image of job in the minds of employees, bears no significant substance on how employees describe their job in the public.
Autonomy give’s the worker freedom, independence and discretion an employee enjoys in the execution of a job. Where possible employees are encouraged to have input as to how their jobs are done, the order of tasks and the speed of work. While in some manufacturing firms, job are design without or little level of autonomy as the work pace is scheduled and people perform programmed tasks, which leads to employee job dissatisfaction.
Feedback is all about how a job provides the employees with direct and clear information about the effectiveness of task performed. While in some manufacturing firms, job does not provide constructive information regarding how employees job are performed. Thereby, reduce intrinsic satisfaction for employee to achieve their career goals.
To perform any job an employee should have ability required and along with ability, the willingness of that employee to perform is also essential. To create the willingness of employees and to motivate them, managers should design jobs that motivate the employee and satisfy them on work.
The researcher therefore, seeks to examine the effect of job design on employee satisfaction in selected manufacturing firms in Rivers State. Recommendations will be made base on the knowledge gained from this study for improvement.
The study conceptual framework is shown in the figure below, this conceptual frame work focuses on the effect of job design on employee satisfaction and the researcher will examine technology as the moderator on the effect of job design on employee satisfaction.
Source: Research Survey 2014.
Job itself refers as nature of work, work itself, job characteristics and general satisfaction.
The researcher has taken job itself (general satisfaction) as a measure of the study dependent variable (employee satisfaction). The reason of self (general satisfaction) is because of flow with job characteristics model taken as a dimensions for job design. Job itself (general satisfaction) is an overall measure of the degree to which the employee is satisfied and happy with the job (Hackman & Oldham, 1975). Job itself (general satisfaction) involves the variety of task involved in job, the interest and challenges the job generates and the clarity of the job description/requirements.
1.3 PURPOSE OF THE STUDY
The study was designed to achieve the following objectives:
v To determine how skill variety relates to employee satisfaction
v To find out how task identity relates to employee satisfaction
v To ascertain how task significance relates to employee satisfaction
v To establish how autonomy relates to employee satisfaction
v To examine how feedback relates to employee satisfaction
v To determine how the technology of the organization moderates the relationship between job design and employee satisfaction.
1.4 RESEARCH QUESTIONS
Based on the statement in the purpose of the study, the following research questions emerged:
1. To what extent does skill variety relate to employee satisfaction?
2. In what ways does task identity relates to employee satisfaction?
3. How does task significance relates to employee satisfaction?
4. To what degree does autonomy relate to employee satisfaction?
5. To what level does feedback relate to employee satisfaction?
6. To what extent does the technology of the organization moderates the relationship between job design and employee satisfaction?
1.5 RESEARCH HYPOTHESES
From the research question above, the following hypotheses have formulated in this study for testing:
H01: There is no significance relationship between skill variety and job itself.
H02: There is no significant relationship between task identity and job itself.
H03: There is no significant relationship between task significance and job itself.
H04: There is no significant relationship between autonomy and job itself.
H05: There is no significant relationship between feedback and job itself.
H06: The technology of an organization does not significantly moderate the relationship between job design and employee satisfaction.
1.6 SIGNIFICANCE OF THE STUDY
This study is important, because the knowledge gained in the study will be useful to the students, organizations, government and the society at large.
This study will be a springboard for the students who may wish to research further in this area and it will constitute a useful test for both library and the students of management. The results of this research will give an indication as to the levels of job dissatisfaction within the said company so that those factors identified as problematic can be worked on to improve productivity and quality. The research will help the federal ministry of industry, commerce and tourism to become aware of the constraints/challenges of manufacturing firms and to intervene where needs be though the formulation of efficient policy with respect to manufacturing firms.
When the findings from this work are utilized organization will become functional, thus, resulting to the realization of the goals of the society.
1.7 SCOPE AND LIMITATION OF THE STUDY
The scope of this study covered three main areas; these are the geographical scope, the context scope and the unit/level scope. The geographical scope of the study is the selected manufacturing firms in Rivers Sate, the respondent to this study constituted the management and employees of the organizations. The context scope covered the extent of relationship between job design and employee satisfaction in selected manufacturing firms in Rivers State.
Owing to the fact that researchers in Nigeria generally are usually faced with a number of personal and environmental challenges, the researcher is no exception as the researcher may experience time limitation and in-cooperating attitude of some respondents. However, the survey is subject to bias and prejudice of the respondent, hence 100% accuracy cannot be assured.
1.8 ORGANIZATION OF THE STUDY
The study is divided into five chapters, the five chapter are sub-divided into three parts, the first is the introduction, the second part is data presentation and analysis and the third part comprise the summary of the study, findings, conclusion and recommendations. The first part which is the introduction comprise of chapter one to three in precise terms chapter one is the introduction, chapter two is the literature review, and chapter three deals with the research design and methodology. The second part, which is chapter four, is data presentation and analysis and the third and last part is chapter five which is the summary of findings, conclusion and recommendations.
1.9 OPERATIONAL DEFINITION OF TERMS
Autonomy: is the extent to which an individual can control or her work.
Employee Satisfaction: The extent to which employees like (satisfaction) or dislike (dissatisfaction) their jobs in an organization.
Feedback: Is the degree to which a job provides the employees with direct and clear information about the effectiveness of task performed.
Interaction: Is the relationship between employee also between the supervisor and employee in an organization.
Job Design: specification of content, method, and relationship of jobs in order to satisfy technology and organizational requirements of the job holder.
Job enlargement: Assigning workers additional same level activities, thus increasing the number of activities they perform.
Job Enrichment: Involving the workers to managerial functions of the higher ranks.
Job Rotation: The process of switching a person from job to job which increases an employee’s capacity and value to an organization.
Job Simplification: This is the analysis of job’s most basic components to restructure or redesign them to make the job more efficient.
Organization: Is association of two or more individual working together toward a common purpose under a leadership and authority.
Pay/Reward: The amount of money either as wages or salaries employees receive in return for their contribution on the job.
Skill Variety: Enable a worker to vary the task performed and to enhance position at a various times during the day.
Task Significant: The amount of impact that a job has, and the contribution that the job makes.
Task Identity: The extent to which a job involves the completion of a ‘whole’ piece of work with end-to-end responsibility.