THE EFFECT OF ORGANIZATIONAL CULTURE ON EMPLOYEE COMMITMENT (A STUDY OF THE RIVERS STATE CIVIL SERVICE)
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THE EFFECT OF ORGANIZATIONAL CULTURE ON EMPLOYEE COMMITMENT (A STUDY OF THE RIVERS STATE CIVIL SERVICE)
TABLE OF CONTENTS
CHAPTER ONE: INTRODUCTION
1.1 background of the study 1
1.2 statement of the problem 3
1.3 purpose of the study 5
1.4 research questions 5
1.5 hypotheses 6
1.6 significance of the study 6
1.7 definition of terms 7
1.8 limitation of the study 8
1.9 organization of the study 9
CHAPTER TWO: LITERATURE REVIEW
2.1 Introduction 12
2.2 The concept of culture 12
2.3 the concept of organizational culture 16
2.4 deviants to organizational culture 43
2.5 employee commitment in organization 47
2.6 historical background of the Nigerian civil service 52
2.7 theoretical framework 63
CHAPTER THREE: RESEARCH METHODOLOGY
3.1 Research design 68
3.2 sampling procedure sample size determination 69
3.3 data collection method 72
3.4 Operational measures of the variables 74
3.5 data analysis technique 77
1.1 BACKGROUND OF THE STUDY
Organizational culture has been an important theme in management and business research for the past few decades due to its effects and potential impact on organizationally and individual desired outcomes such as commitment, loyalty, intent to turnover and satisfaction (Chow et al, 2001). This interest has led management scholars and practitioners to undertake researches resulting in numerous articles devoted to organization cultural issues.
In today’s business environment, organizational culture is used as a powerful tool that portrays many facets of a work place as well as a quantify the way a business functions (Gray, et al, 2003).
In order to buttress this view, Stanley (1998) stressed that organizational culture is an essential ingredient for the success of every business concern and treating this important aspect with the weave of the hand, may in fact constitute the recipe for failure of the organization.
Culture in organizations, is a man-made concept aimed at helping the people involved to get things done. Aiex (1988) emphasizes that culture helps the people involved to avoid the dark abyss of disorder and Chaos into which they might otherwise fall. This assertion is in line with what Watson (1994) says about organizational culture a set of meanings shared by all members of the organization which defines what is good and bad, right and wrong and what are the appropriate ways for members of the organization to think and believe.
This definition corresponds with what Leontiou (1987) says of organizational culture. She defines organizational culture as a system of shared values (what is important) and beliefs (how things work) that interact with a company’s people, organizational structure, and control systems to produce behavioural norms (the way things are done).
Culture has a subtle but powerful influence on organizational life of employees. It is not seen or heard but it is felt and that makes it one of the abstract issues in the theory of organizations. It is an important factor, which alongside other related corporate realities, interacts to influence organizational and individual performance.
Omogie (1998) observed that when the organizations adopt the right culture, the attitudes, behaviours and beliefs of the managers and employees are focused towards achieving its set objectives, of course, the attendant result is improved organizational performance, an output of enhanced productivity, corporate growth and development, efficiency and customer and employee satisfaction. However, if a wrong, culture is adopted, it becomes difficult to achieve set objectives and invariably the result is low morale, low employee commitment and low job satisfaction.
In fact, Ottih (1998) espoused that productivity and morale can be influenced by factors beyond the physical working environment. In essence, it does not have to lie within leadership, training, compensation or other individual related variables to sustain the commitment and performance of the employee at work.
Often, attempts to redesign or enlarge job scope have left the employee more frustrated and depressed precisely put, there is expressed dissatisfaction by employee over their job.
On the other hand, the extent to which all the aforementioned variables cause employee commitment is largely a function of the general beliefs attitudes, sagas and values of the organization which are otherwise referred to as organizational culture. Although employee commitment may appear arbitrary, it manifest itself in terms of the output level of the employee, morale and attitudes towards work task, especially were such beliefs are incongruent with employee expectations.
Due to the powerful influence of culture on the employee’s organizational life, its effect on their commitment naturally comes into focus. Commitment according to Hinde (1987) is the extent to which the partners (staff) accept their relationship as continuing indefinitely or direct their behaviour towards ensuring its continuance, confirming the fact that a person feels committed to an organization when he identifies with it and experiences some psychological attachment to it.
1.2 STATEMENT OF THE PROBLEM
In most organizations today, employee commitment and behaviour or output is largely a function of the culture as practiced in the organization. As an important metaphor in the life of an organization, culture defines what is important and how things work. The emphasis now lies on whether the culture has assisted positively in getting the employees (as well as the employer) committed to their jobs, as to contribute to the growth and effectiveness of the organization.
It is unfortunate that little has been done in form of research to address this question despite some evidence that document the positive effects of employee commitment (e.g. Buchanan, 1977; Steeers 1977; Okwudiafor, 1986).
The problem is that in most organizations in Nigeria today, people after being recruited, trained and motivated still lack commitment to their jobs, thus raising the question; whether the lack of commitment is culture related? What type of organizational culture do exists in the organization and what actions must be taken to increase employee commitment so as to increase organizational productivity and performance.
More so, in Nigeria, the few studies in this area have focused on private establishments with little attention given to the public sectors which also contribute immensely to economic, social and political development of any nation.
It is therefore the main focus of this study to identify the type of culture that exists in the rivers state civil service and also its effect on the commitment of employees.
1.3 PURPOSE OF THE STUDY
The purpose of this study will include:
1. To examine the relationship that exists between organizational culture and employee commitment.
2. To examine a set of organizational culture dimensions that would prove to be an effective guide in the measurement of employee commitment.
3. To explore the effects of organizational culture dimensions on employee commitment.
4. To examine the type of culture that exists in the rivers state civil service.
5. To identify actions to be taken to improve employee commitment in the organization.
1.4 RESEARCH QUESTIONS
For the purpose of this study, the following research questions have been formulated:
1. Is there any relationship between organizational culture and employees desire to remain in the organization?
2. Does organizational culture dimensions have any effect on an employee’s willingness to exert considerable effort in the organization?
3. What are the characteristics of a committed employee?
4. What type of organizational culture exists in the rivers state civil service?
5. What are the actions to be taken to improve employee commitment in rivers state civil service?
6. Does the type of culture adopted by the organization have any effect on employee’s loyalty to the organizations goals?
According to Acker and Day (1980) there are three main sources of information the researcher can use to develop hypotheses. These are:
1. Previous research efforts or initial exploratory research.
2. Theory from related discipline, and
3. Management experience
Based on the research questions and a combination of the three sources above, the following hypotheses will be tested to determine empirically whether there is any relationship between the variables under investigation.
H01: There is no significant relationship between organizational culture and employees desire to remain in the organization.
H02: There is no significant relationship between organizational culture and employee’s willingness to exert considerable effort.
H03: There is no significant relationship between organizational culture and employee’s loyalty to organizational goals.
1.6 SIGNIFICANCE OF THE STUDY
The essence of a study on organizational culture cannot be over emphasized. A major significance of the study will lie in its contribution to the existing pool of literature on organizational culture and its effect on employee commitment which has been scare in this part of the world.
Second, by identifying the types of culture that exists in the organization, this study will to a large extent help to clarify what constitutes a committed employee.
The government, managers, supervisors, employees and organizations as a whole, no doubt stand to benefit from the knowledge gained in this study.
The study is also expected to create awareness in the members of organizations who hitherto did not realize that their organization practice one type of culture or another. Also, the influence of culture on employee performance and commitment in the organization would be known.
Furthermore, the findings of this study are also envisaged to assist organizations to appreciate the act of building healthy and strong cultures for the growth and well-being of their organizations and employees.
Finally, the study will provide a background for future research on this topic.
1.7 DEFINITION OF TERMS
The following definitions would be adopted for the purpose of this study:
1. Employee Commitment: The term as used here means the relative strength of an individual’s identification and involvement in a particular organization.
2. Organizational Culture: The term as used here means the norms, beliefs, values and assumptions as practiced and observed by the members of an organization.
3. Performance: For the purpose of this study, the Lexican Webster Dictionary definition will be adopted. Thus, performance means the accomplishment or finishing executing or fulfilling activity.
4. Manager/Supervisor: The term as used here means any employee that plays the role of a boss. i.e. one who has some workers down the hierarchy that receive orders/or instructions from him for compliance.
1.8 LIMITATION OF THE STUDY
Just as in all researches conducted by humans this research work will have its own limitations.
The first limitation in this research would be the limit of scope of the to the rivers state civil service.
The result of the analysis no doubt will be highly influenced by the choice of statistical tool. There is no doubt that different results would be obtained if other tools are to be used.
More so, because some organizations would not want to be seen as operating a weak culture, most managers and employees will find it difficult to release whole information, thus only little information considered to have no harm on the organizational image might be released. Although a promise of confidentiality of the identity of the respondents would help to sterm this fear.
Truly, it would be ideal to carry out this research in all the states of the federation, but lack of funds, limited time, and other incidentals would make it impossible.
However, despite these perceived limitations, the research would be valid to the limits of its acceptability.
1.9 ORGANIZATION OF THE STUDY
The study will be divided into five chapters structured as follows:
Chapter One: Contains introduction to the research work, and it is made up of background of the study, statement of the problem, purpose of the study, research questions, hypothesis, significance of the study, definition of terms, limitation and organization of the study.
Chapter Two: Contains a review of relevant literature concerning the study.
Chapter Three: Covers the research methodology made up of research design, sampling procedure/sample size determination, data collection method, operational measures of the variables, and data analysis technique.
Chapter Four: Will cover the presentation and analysis of data to be collected. The hypothesis put forward in the study will be verified to determine its empirical validity in this chapter.
Chapter Five: Will cover discussion on the findings made, draw conclusions and also make recommendations.