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THE EFFECT OF SUPERVISOR’S BEHAVIOUR ON PRODUCTIVITY OF EMPLOYEES (A CASE STUDY OF EAGLE CEMENT PLC PORT HARCOURT)






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THE EFFECT OF SUPERVISOR’S BEHAVIOUR ON PRODUCTIVITY OF EMPLOYEES
(A CASE STUDY OF EAGLE CEMENT PLC PORT HARCOURT)



ABSTRACT
The study on the effect of supervisor’s behaviours on productivity of employees in “Eagle cement Plc.” Port Harcourt is aimed at investigating whether there is a positive/significant relationship between supervisor’s behaviour on productivity of employees in “Eagle Cement Plc.”. Port Harcourt data for the study were collected from both the primary and secondary sources. The primary sources include interview, questionnaire and personal observation while the secondary data came from related literature, journals, textbooks, and periodicals, among others. Three hypotheses were formulated and tested. The chi-square x2 test of statistic was used to test hypotheses one and two at 0.05 level of significant, while the spearman’s Rank correlation coefficient rs was used in testing hypothesis three at 0.05 level of significance. From the data collected and tested, it was found that supervisors are the “Linking Pin” between workers and the management in “Eagle Cement Plc.”. Port Harcourt, on whose finger tipped the continuous existence of the business rest on top management. We recommend that, for participative and or democratic management should through the industrial training fund (I.T.F) embark on mass employee training, and development program. To further enhance and improve task, skilled and people oriented supervisors should be developed to co-operate with the subordinates. For organizational efficiency and effectiveness, supervisors in any given organization should improve their attitude toward their subordinates that work under them.


TABLE OF CONTENTS
Title Page                                                                                 i
Declaration                                                                              ii
Certification                                                                             iii
Dedication                                                                               iv
Acknowledgement                                                                    v
Abstract                                                                                   vi
Table of Contents                                                                     vii
List of Tables                                                                           viii
CHAPTER ONE: INTRODUCTION
1.1   Overview of the study                                                       1
1.2   Statement of the problem                                                1
1.3   Purpose of the study                                                                3
1.4   Research questions                                                          4
1.5   Research hypotheses                                                       5
1.6   Significance of the study                                                  6
1.7   Limitations of the study                                                   6
1.8   Definitions of terms operational                                       7
1.9   Organization of the study                                                 9
CHAPTER TWO: REVIEW OF RELATED LITERATURE
2.1   Introduction                                                                     11
2.2   factors that determine supervisor effectiveness                        11
2.3   supervisor’s behaviour and subordinates task skills               15
2.4   decision centralization participation and subordinates
Satisfaction                                                                      18
2.5   organizational climate and supervisor’s behaviour                  22
2.6   productivity concepts and factors influencing
Productivity                                                                     29
2.7   factors affecting productivity of workers                           32
2.7.1 Economic factors                                                            33
2.7.2 Managerial factors                                                          33
2.7.3 Technological factors                                                      34
2.7.4 Sociological factors                                                         35
CHAPTER THREE: RESEARCH METHODOLOGY
3.1   Introduction                                                                     37
3.2   research design                                                                        37
3.3   population sampling procedure sample                           37
        Size determination
3.4   data collection method                                                    38
3.5   operational measure of variables                                     39
3.6   data analysis technique                                                   41
CHAPTER FOUR: PRESENTATION AND ANALYSIS OF DATA
4.1   Introduction                                                                     43
4.2   presentation of data and interpretation                           43
4.3   statistical test of hypotheses                                            48
4.3.1 Test of hypothesis one                                                    49
4.3.2 Test of hypothesis two                                                    51
4.3.3 Test of hypothesis three                                                  54
CHAPTER FIVE; SUMMARY OF FINDINGS, CONCLUSION AND RECOMMENDATION
5.1   Introduction                                                                     57
5.2   Summary of findings                                                               57
5.3   Conclusion                                                                      59
5.4   Recommendation                                                             60
Bibliography                                                                            61
Research Letter                                                                                63
Questionnaire                                                                          64


LIST OF TABLES
Table 4.1: Allocation of questionnaire and numbers returned from company                                                                  44
Table 4.2: Does supervisor’s leadership style adopt have significant influence on workers’ productivity                          44
Table 4.3: Does the supervisor’s reward behaviour have significant impact on workers’ productivity?                              45
Table 4.4: Does supervisor’s punishment behaviour have significant impact on worker productivity                                  45
Table 4.5: Do workers remuneration and its administration have any significant influence on workers’ productivity   46
Table 4.6: Does supervisors influence on employees work value attainment affect workers’ productivity?                    46
Table 4.7: Factors affecting productivity of workers                 47
Table 4.8: Organizational climate and supervisor behaviours 47
Table 4.9: Decision centralization, participation and subordinates satisfaction                                                                48
Table 4.10: computation of test hypothesis one                               49
Table 4.11:  Computation of test hypothesis one                     50
Table 4.12: Computation of test hypothesis two                              52
Table 4.13: Computation of test hypothesis two                              52
Table 4.14: Computation of test hypothesis three                    54
Table 4.15: Computation of test hypothesis three                    54


CHAPTER ONE
INTRODUCTION
1.1   OVERVIEW OF THE STUDY
When things go wrong in an organization is most often laid at the leader’s door similarly when organizations are doing particularly well. People tend to think that their leaders are doing exceptionally well. In addition to leaders being held responsible for the success or failure of the whole organization, leaders are also held responsible for the performance of individuals and groups within an organization.
The impact of supervisor’s behaviour on individuals, groups and organizations has prompted researchers to devote considerable effort to understanding supervisor’s leadership style.  Researchers do however focus on two major leadership issues. Why some members of organizations become leaders while others do not and why some leaders are more successful or effective than others Dunnette and Hough (1992:149 noted that most researcher confirm the popular belief that leadership is indeed an important ingredient of individual, group and organizational effectiveness.
In other words, good employee supervision supervises individuals, group and the whole organizations to perform at a high level and achieve their goals. Conversely a lack of effective supervision is often a contributing factor to lackluster performance. Although most researchers suggest that leader could make the different writing organizations, some researchers however, have questioned whether leadership always makes a difference in helping individuals, group and organization achieve goals such a high level of job satisfaction and job performance, small functioning and effective work group. And an increase in organization revenues and market share.
Meindle as cited in Straw and Cummings (1990:109) argued that although it might make people feel good and secure to think that leaders are important and in charge, leadership may be more a figment of the imagination than fact of organizational life. In other words supervisors is something that have little effect on the attitude and behaviours of their subordinates sometimes, no matter what he supervisor does workers are dissatisfied with their job or fail to perform high. At other time, subordinates are satisfied with their job attained. Or exceed their work goal, and performance at a high level without the supervisor exerting much influence on them.
Kerr and Jerimer (1978), two organizational behaviour researchers, realized that leadership substitutes, and neutralizers sometimes act to limit the influence that leaders have in organizations. “Eagle Cement PLC”. Port Harcourt usually involves the exercise of influence by one member of a group or organization to achieve their goals.
Despite the presence of leadership neutralizers and subordinates supervisor do influence the attitudes and behaviours of their followers in ‘Eagle Cement PLC” Port Harcourt. This controversy in management literature, on the influence of supervisor’s leadership in worker productivity was that motivated this study.


1.2   STATEMENT OF THE PROBLEM
Analysis are of the view that there has been decline in employee productivity in organization in the Nigeria Economy, and this has engineered the need for productivity improvement in recent times failure to improve the productivity of the worker could place the organization in a competitively disadvantageous position and drastically affect Engle cements/firms, market share, market position, Profitability employee altitudes motivation, personnel development, growth and also the firms relationship with it employees, suppliers, local communities and business communities, government financial instructions among others.
To achieve organizational objectives or goals, the job performance of employee’s their personal characteristics or attitude needs to be examined. In addition to this the efficiency of plant design, the extent of automation the role of managerial leadership on employee’s productivity also need to examined. Supervisor usually involves the exercise of influence by one member of a group or organization to achieve their goal. In other words, supervisory style, supervisor reward and punishment behaviour could influence the degree of work satisfaction or dissatisfaction, absenteeism, turnover, among others that could affect directly or indirectly employee productivity. It therefore becomes necessary to examine the impact of supervisor behaviour on employee’s productivity in organization in the Nigeria economy.
1.3   PURPOSE OF THE STUDY
The study is to precisely examine the
a)     Nature of the influence of supervisor’s leadership style on employee productivity.
b)     Magnitude of the influence on employees productivity
c)     Impact of supervisor’s reward behaviour on employee productivity
d)     Impact of supervisor’s punishment behaviour on employee productivity



1.4   RESEARCH QUESTIONS
The following questions were asked and answer ought
1.     Does the supervisor’s leadership style adopt have significant influence on workers’ productivity.
2.     Does the supervisor’s reward behaviour significant impact on workers’ productivity?
3.     Does supervisor punishment behaviour have significant impact on workers’ productivity?
4.     Do workers remuneration and its administration have any significant influence on workers’ productivity?
5.     Does supervisor’s influence on employee work value attainment affects workers’ productivity?
1.5   RESEARCH HYPOTHESES
The following hypotheses were formulated in the null form and tested fattest.
H01: There is no positive/significant relationship between supervisor’s leadership style and workers’ productivity.
H02: There is no positive/significant relationship between supervisor’s reward behaviour and workers’ productivity
H03: There is no positive/significant relationship between supervisor’s punishment behaviour and workers’ productivity.
1.6   SIGNIFICANCE OF THE STUDY
This study would contribute greatly in productivity improvement through effective leadership. The study would also add to existing stock of knowledge on the impact of supervisor leadership on workers’ productivity in a developing economy.
The findings of the study would reveal how to enhance cordial relationship between subordinates and managers in an organizational setting.
1.7   LIMITATION OF THE STUDY
1.     This study was faced with some limitation tat constrained the generalization of its findings. A case study of Eagle cements in Port Harcourt limited the generalization of the findings to all organization in the country.
2.     There was also constraint posed by the true and inadequate research friends that restricted the scope of the studying.
3.     Quite a number of supervisors are semi-literate who have risen to such position from ranks and so were not able to provision most the information expected of supervisors.
4.     Some of the firm employee (junior workers) who were approached for interview by the researcher develop lukewarm attitude either for fear of consequent dismissal or the problem of work load as complained by some of them. However, the above limitations were not strong as to invalidate the finding of the study due to the methodology adopted.
1.8   DEFINITION OF TERMS (OPERATIONAL)
The terms to be defined below are variables to be used very often in this project a case study of Eagle Cements. They are as follows:
Behaviour
Within certain limits impose by the inner personality of the individual, each person has the capacity of cultivating habits of hebaviour (by not or will) which optimizes his effect upon other people. Thus behaviour refers to the treatment (good or bad) shown towards others.
Consideration
This as in production enterprise denotes or refers to the degree to which a leader (supervisor) shows concerns and respect for his subordinates, this typify the employee oriented approach and style of management.
Initiating Structure
This has to do with the extent to which a leader (supervisor) defines and structure his own role and those of this follows toward goal accomplishment and attainment, thus allowing the subordinates little freedom.
Leadership
The exercise of influenced by one member of a group or organization over other members to help the group achieve its goals.
Productivity
This is seen as or applies to a ratio of what is so produced by an organization to what is required to undertaken the production. It is always expressed in form of average taken as the denomination.
Supervisor
A supervisor is an operational or technical specialist occupying the lowest rank in the managerial level whose study is to oversee, inspects, and direct the activities of non-management employees to achieve the desired result of the group.
Supervisor Behaviour
In this context, we refer to as the member in which supervisor in the process of carrying out his responsibility and duties exhibits his skill, attitude and philosophy relation and response to his follows in a work context.
1.9   ORGANIZATION OF THE STUDY
Chapter one the introducing part of this study, it comprises of the introduction context of the study, statement of the study purpose, research question, hypothetic formulation operational definition of terms, significance of the study, limitation and organization of the study.
Chapter two consist of review of related literature of previous studies and summary, chapter three (3) is the methodology of the study with sub-session are the introduction, research design, sampling procedure/sample size determination, data collection method oppression measures of variables, questionnaire design and data analysis techniques.
Chapter four consists of presentation, interpretation of finding and analysis of data. Finally five is the result of the study, recommendation and conclusion.



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