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BASAL METABOLIC RATE OF ADULT MALES IN PORT HARCOURT
TABLE OF CONTENTS
Title Page - - - - - - - - - - i
Declaration - - - - - - - - - ii
Dedication - - - - - - - - - iii
Acknowledgement - - - - - - - - iv
Abstract - - - - - - - - - - v
Table of Contents - - - - - - - - vi
List of Tables and Figures - - - - - - vii
CHAPTER ONE: Introduction
CHAPTER TWO: Literature Review
CHAPTER THREE: Methodology
3.2 Distribution of Subjects
3.3 Selection of Subjects
3.4 Measurement of Weight
3.5 Measurement of Height
3.6 Age Determination
3.7 Body Surface Area Determination
CHAPTER FOUR: Results
4.1 Statistical Analysis
4.2 Relationship between Age and Basal Metabolism
4.3 Relationship between Mean Basal Caloric Outputs per Hour to Surface Area.
4.4 Relationship between Age and Basal Energy Requirement
4.5 Relationship between Basal Caloric Output and Weight
4.6 Variation of Surface Area with Height and Weight
CHAPTER FIVE: Discussion
CHAPTER SIX: Conclusion
i. Determination of B.M.R. of Adult Males
ii. Sample of Questionnaire
iii. Nomogram Chart
iv. Desirable Weights According to Height and Body Frame.
LIST OF TABLES AND FIGURES
Table 1: Statistical Representation of Result
Table 2: Variation of B.M.R. with Age
Table 3: Mean and Standard Deviation of Basal Calories per Hour According to surface Area
Table 4: Basal Calories in Present Study Calculated using Dubois Formula and Kleiber’s Formula
Table 5: Mean and Standard Deviation of Basal Calories per Hour According to Weight Range
Table 6: Variation of Surface Area with Height
Table 7: Variation of Surface Area with Weight
Table 8: B.M.R. of Subjects in Present Study Compared with the Mayo Foundation Standards.
Figure 1: Variation of Mean B.M.R. with Mean Age
Figure 2: Mean Values of Calories per Hour According to Surface Area
Figure 3: Variation of Basal Caloric need with Mean Age
Figure 4: Mean Values of Calories per Hour According to Weight Range
Figure 5: Variation of Surface Area with Height
Figure 6: Variation of Surface Area with Weight
The term metabolism is used to refer to all the chemical and energy transformations that occur in all cells of the body. It involves those processes which provide the energy needed by an organism to exist in the environment and to accomplish work or activity.
Basal metabolism is the minimum amount of energy required by the body when completely at a relaxed state. It indicates the amount of energy needed to sustain the life processes: respiration, cellular metabolism, circulation, glandular activity and the maintenance of body temperature.
Measurement of basal metabolism, or the use of nutrients for energy, results in heat production. This heat is in turn dissipated through the skin and is measurable in a respiratory calorimeter. Since oxygen is required for oxidation of nutrients, oxygen consumption can be related for the heat production in the following formula Food: + 02 → energy + C02.
The energy generated is expressed as an average of 4.825 Kcal or (20.19kj) per liter of oxygen consumed. This describes a diet of approximately 45% carbohydrate, 15% protein, and 40% fat. Major shifts from this pattern will affect the respiratory quotient and the kilo calories per liter of oxygen consumed. It is customary to express basal metabolism as a relationship of heat production to body mass; that is, kilocalories per hour per square meter (m2) of surface area.
The importance of basal metabolism lies in the fact that then the basal metabolic rate (B.M.R.) is measured in a wide variety of different persons and comparisons are made within a single age, weight and sex groups, 85% of the normal persons have been found to have basal metabolic rates within 10% of the mean. Thus measurements of metabolic rates performed under basal conditions offer an excellent means for comparing the rates of metabolic from one person to another.
Basal metabolic studies have been used to determine endocrine activities, because the secretions of the endocrine glands are the principal regulators of the metabolic rate particularly those of the thyroid gland. When the supply of thyroxin is inadequate, the basal metabolic rate (B.M.R.) may fall 30 to 50% of the normal rate. If it is hyper-secretory the BMR may increase top almost twice the normal amount. In this regard an abnormal BMR has been used as a clinical indicator of thyroid function, and mal-function because one of the useful methods for diagnosing abnormal rate of thyroid secretion is to determine the BMR of the patient. A normal person usually has a BMR within 10 to 15% of normal. While the hyperthyroid person often has a BMR as high as 40 to 80% above normal and a hypothyroid person has a BMR as low as 40 to 50% below normal.
Nutritionally, it is through basal metabolic studies that the total energy requirement needed by an individual daily, to sustain life and to maintain desired weight is known.
The purpose of this study thus, is to determine the basal metabolic rate in a typical Nigerian population of adult males. Furthermore, in view of the different climatic conditions and dietetic habits, it is also necessary to determine whether the normal BMR standards established in the Western Countries agree with the values got in this work and to finally try to make possible deductions of how age, weight, height and surface area affect the BMR of the subjects studied.