THE EFFECT OF PERSONALITY TRAITS ON ORGANIZATION CITIZENSHIP BEHAVIOUR IN SELECTED BANKS IN EDO STATE OF NIGERIA
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THE EFFECT OF PERSONALITY TRAITS ON ORGANIZATION CITIZENSHIP BEHAVIOUR IN SELECTED BANKS IN EDO STATE OF NIGERIA
1.1 CONTEXT OF THE PROBLEM
Every well establish business want to make profit, grow as well as meet its strategic objectives among other things. In a bid to achieving this noble fear, organizations have come to the realization that competitive advantage can no longer be achieved through their products, but rather through people (employee). This reality has strategically placed employees as the major differentiating success factor at the disposal of most organizations.
Nowadays, it is evident that the work environment is quite turbulent and very dynamic this poses a great challenge to the employee as he strives on a daily bases to meet his target and increase productivity at work. Working in dynamic and variable conditions’ seems to be one of the fundamental characteristics of employees in the organization and organization increasingly depends on these employees that have the ability to adapt with these dynamics and variable conditions as such employees are capable of helping the organization achieve its strategic objective. Therefore, the challenge facing most organizations today had however remain the formulation of an effective strategy and viable policy trust that can galvanize the organization to achieving corporate excellence through adequate and proper employee management. To overcome this challenge, motivation must be a key success factor. Employee should be properly motivated to engage in activities that will benefit and help in the achievement of predetermined organizational goals. In order to achieve this, it is imperative for managers to set in motion work conditions that will help employees to achieve satisfaction. When employees are satisfied with work conditions, they tend to exhibit certain behaviour. This behaviour though not recognized by the formal system of the organization, have a compelling benefit to the organizations as it has been described as important for the growth, success, effectiveness and productivity of any organization Murphy et al, (2002).
It is light of this that a considerable amount of scholarly attention to the construct of organizational citizenship behaviour primarily stems from the fact that organizational citizenship behaviour leads to improved organization effectiveness Podsakoff et al, (1996) to drive home the importance of organizational citizenship behaviour to the achievement of organizational effectiveness Wyss (2006) postulates that an organization which depends solely on its blueprints of prescribed behaviour are a very fragile social system. Organizational Citizenship Behaviour basically determines the employees’ readiness to give up their effort and cooperate with the organization in order to contribute to the productivity, employee satisfaction, customer satisfaction, and quality. Organizations realized that for surviving in this competitive scenario organization have to develop employee work efforts and for effective functioning of the organization employee efforts are needed that can be beyond the official requirements of the role.
Researchers have theorized that the effectiveness of organization is likely to be enhanced when employees go above and beyond the call of duty to aid fellow workers in order to achieve organizational goals (Organ, 1988) and such behaviour has become critical in today’s corporate world.
In order to put this behaviour in perspective, Organ and Smith (1983) define organizational citizenship behaviour as behaviour that is discretionary, not directly or implicitly recognized by a formal system and that in aggregate promotes the effective functioning of an organization. The term “discretionary means that the behaviour is not an enforceable requirement of the role or the job prescription that is clearly specified in an employee’s employment contract with the organization. The behaviour is rather a product of a personal decision by the employee such that is omission is not generally understood as punishable. Pro-social ethical behaviours such as helping new employees to understand the internal working of the organization, assisting co-workers complete their jobs, attending meetings and volunteering to do things in excess of job prescriptions are some of the behaviours that can be associated with organizational citizenship behaviour (Schnake 1991).
Organizational citizenship behaviour has often been referred to in academic literature as a construct focused on helping (Ehrhart & Nauman2004). Over the years organizational citizenship behaviour has received greater attention by different scholars. Studies have been carried out on organizational citizenship in different countries and how it influence organization efficiency. (Hossam Abu 2007) carried out a research on the relationship between personality traits and OCB among 164 employees working in service sector in Dubai, he found that both extraversion and agreeableness showed no significant relationship with OCB, he also found that openness was significantly related to OCB. (Akhilendra et al, 2009) conducted a study of 188 front level managers to examine the role personality were significantly negatively correlated with sportsmanship, courtesy and altruism dimensions of OCB. (Malvein et al 2011) carried out a research on evaluation of job satisfaction and organizational citizenship amongst selected organization in Zimbabwe. Their research was aimed at achieving organizational citizenship behaviour through job satisfaction. Also organizational citizenship behaviour and organizational commitment studies amongst university teachers of Pakistan by Noor (2009), on impact of training & development opportunities shows a positive relationship this further demonstrated how organizational commitment impact positively to enhance organizational citizenship behaviour among the teachers and implications that can help the universities of Pakistan in augmenting the organizational citizenship behaviour of teachers. George and Batternhausen (1990) carried out a study on attraction and retention to O.C.B.
1.2 STATEMENT OF THE PROBLEM
Due to the prevailing turbulence in the Nigerian business environment, it is almost impossible for organizational to make significance progress in their drive towards achieving organizational excellence.
Although organizations seek committed workforce is crucial in maintaining their competitive advantage, modern trends in work organization tends to portray the opposite. It is also a common knowledge that today’s employee is looking for other ways of making more money, asks for salary increment and other fringe benefits are becoming very common, and the more the salaries are increased, the higher the employee instability shows up. Lack of organizational citizenship behaviour manifest in high intentions to leave the organizational (Allen & Meyer, 1996), high rate of absenteeism, lateness to work, fall in productivity, insubordination to authorities etc.
One of the antecedents of lack of employee’s organizational citizenship behaviour has been noted in the drastic organizational changes like mergers and acquisition, restructuring, downsizing and bankruptcies which no longer guarantee secure employment for (Tan 2008). Hence, employees seek to gain marketability and employability across industries instead of remaining competent in as single organization. This was the experience of the banking industry in Nigeria by mid-2000’s following the mandate given by the CBN for banks to recapitalize with a Twenty five billion naira recapitalize with banking sector of the Nigerian economy leaving only 25 banks as at the time. Many employees were laid off in the process. In addition the aftermath of the reforms in the banking sector, by mid02009, carried out by the central bank Governor Sanusi Lamido which lead to the sack of eight bank chiefs and their directors has made many bank employees the victims of the exercise. As over 8,000 bank employees lost their job as a fall out form the reforms.
It therefore appear that these are not the best time to work in the banks. The retrenchment that were based on no criteria or convincing reasons as well as continual warning mails from higher authorities leaves existing employees emotionally disengaged as both the best performers and newly promoted are terrified. The future now looks bleak for most bank workers who are victims. However employees are not able to exhibit citizenship behaviour due to the fact that there lies within the work environment uncertainties that may cause them to be laid off anytime.
However, despite the growing body of research on the concept organizational citizenship behaviour, empirically literature on the relationship between personality traits and citizenship behaiour in developing countries especially in Nigeria remains scanty. In light of these, the researcher tends to study personality traits and organizational citizenship behaviour among employees in Nigerian banks.
1.3 CONCEPTUAL FRAMEWORK
This model explains the intersection of the dimensions of the predictor variable (personality traits) and measures of the criterion variable (organizational citizenship behaviour) with organizational culture as a moderating variable.
Source: Conceptualized by the Researcher 2014.
Dimensions of predictor variable (personality trait):- by Barrick and Mount (1991),
§ Emotional Stability
§ Openness to Experience
Measures of criterion variable (O.C.B.) by Organ D.W. (1988).
§ Civic virtue
Contextual variable (Dennison 1990)
§ Organizational Culture
1.4 PURPOSE OF THE STUDY
The purpose of the study if to ascertain the relationship between personality traits and organizational citizenship behaviour in the Nigeria banking industry.
More specifically this study will seek to:-
1. Ascertain the relationship between extraversion personality and organizational citizenship behaviour in Nigeria banking industry.
2. Investigate the relationship between agreeableness personality and organizational citizenship behaviour in Nigeria banks.
3. Find out the relationship between conscientiousness personality and organization citizenship behaviour in Nigerian banks.
4. Ascertain the relationship between emotional stability personality and organization citizenship behaviour in Nigerian banks.
5. Investigate the relationship between openness to experience personality and organizational behaviour in Nigerian banks.
6. Ascertain if corporate culture will moderate the relationship between personality traits and organizational citizenship behaviour in Nigerian banks.
1.5 RESEARCH QUESTIONS
The research questions below are raised in order to locate answers to the research problems as well as lead to findings which conclusions would be drawn from.
1. To what extent does extraversion personality influence organization citizenship behaviour of Nigerian banks?
2. To what extent does agreeableness personality influence organization citizenship behaviour of Nigeria banks?
3. To what extent does conscientiousness personality influence organization citizenship behaviour of Nigerian banks?
4. To what extent does emotional stability personality influences organization citizenship behaviour of Nigerian banks?
5. To what extent does openness to experience personality influences organization citizenship behaviour of Nigerian banks?
6. will corporate culture moderates the relationship between personality traits and organizational citizenship behaviour in Nigerian banks?
In order to have a clear test and validity of the study, the following hypotheses were tested.
H01: There is no significance relationship between extraversion personality and altruism of Nigerian banking industry.
H02: There is no significance relationship between extraversion personality and conscientiousness of Nigerian banking industry.
H03: There is no significance relationship between extraversion personality and civil virtue of Nigerian banking industry.
H04: There is no significance relationship between agreeableness personality and altruism of Nigeria banking industry.
H05: There is no significance relationship between agreeableness personality and conscientiousness of Nigerian banking industry.
H06: There is no significance relationship between agreeableness personality and civic virtue of Nigerian banking industry.
H07: There is no significance relationship between conscientiousness personality and altruism of Nigerian banking industry.
H08: There is no significance relationship between conscientiousness personality and OCB conscientiousness of Nigerian banking industry.
H09: There is no significance relationship between conscientiousness personality and civil virtue of Nigerian banking industry.
H010: There is no significance relationship between emotional stability personality and altruism of Nigerian banking industry.
H011: There is no significance relationship between emotional stability personality and conscientiousness of Nigerian banking industry.
H012: There is no significance relationship between emotional stability personality and civil virtue of Nigerian banking industry.
H013: There is no significance relationship between openness to experience personality and altruism of Nigerian banking industry.
H014: There is no significance relationship between openness to experience personality and conscientiousness of Nigerian banking industry.
H015: There is no significance relationship between openness to experience personality and civil virtue of Nigerian banking industry.
H016: Corporate culture will not moderate the relationship between personality trait and organizational citizenship behaviour of Nigerian banking industry.
1.5 SIGNIFICANCE OF THE STUDY
Theoretical Significance: The result of this study is of tremendous importance to researchers and practitioners of management. It will educate them on the influence of personality traits on organizational citizenship behaviour. It also contributes to the existing body of knowledge on personality traits and organizational citizenship behavior and it also a basis for further research.
Practical Significance: The study will be of benefit to managers, policy makers in the organization. It will demonstrate to managers, the importance of creating an enabling structure that would facilities employee participation and involvement in the decision making process and functioning of the organization.
1.8 SCOPE OF THE STUDY
Theoretical Scope: The theoretical scope covers all relevant literature on personality traits and organizational citizenship behaviour.
Geographical Scope: The survey scope covers all banks listed on the Nigeria stock exchange.
Unit of Analysis: The unit of analysis is generally shaped by the purpose of the researcher and the material of study (Matusor 2007). Unit of analysis helps to articulate and address many methodological issues. It helps to operationalize the phenomenon under study so that it can be measured quantitatively (Kenny 2003). For the purpose of this study, the individual is our unit of analysis, thereby positioning our research in the micro level. We elicited information from individual employees using questionnaire regarding their level of citizenship behaviour exhibited to the organization.
1.9 LIMITATION OF THE STUDY
The study encountered several limitations.
1. Difficulty in measurement of variables on personality traits and organizational citizenship behaviour.
2. Difficulty in generating data because of the fluid nature of the stud variables and also due to company policies or individual reasons, some of the respondents showed reluctance in divulging information relating to their organization.
Nevertheless, these limitations have not stultified our efforts in carrying out the research that we hope will contribute to the existing body of knowledge. More so, as we will be mindful of the instructive observation, it is not always possible to conduct investigation that is one hundred percent scientific. Thus we have made every effort to maximize the use of research instruments at our disposal.
1.10 OPERATIONAL DEFINITION OF TERMS
1. Extraversion: This refers to the extent to which a person is sociable, talkative, lively, active and excitable.
2. Altruism: is that voluntary behaviour that is centered of helping fellow employees with their duties thereby preventing work relate problems.
3. Conscientiousness: This involves going beyond your call of duty to perform those functions that will be benefit to the organization. This is evident in spending extra hours at work, taking short breaks etc.
4. Civic Virtue: Civic virtue is those responsibilities that employee exhibits by being commitment to the organization. These is expressed by given suggestions on how to takes the organization to the next level. Monitoring the business environment and give relevant information about opportunities and treat.
5. Agreeableness: This refers to the extent to which a person is good-natured, helpful, trusting and cooperative.
6. Organizational Citizenship Behaviour: are those voluntary behaviours that employees exhibit toward work which is not bided by their terms of contract, failure to do so does not attract any punishment or benefits but in aggregate, it promotes the effective functioning of the organization.
7. Emotional Stability: The act of an individual being emotionally secure and stable.
8. Openness to Experience: This refers to the extent to which is a person is clam and secure
9. Corporate Culture: This refers to the predominating attitudes and behaviour that characterized the functioning of a group or organization.
1.11 ORGANIZATION OF THE STUDY
This study is made up of five chapters 1-5, chapter one was presented under the following sub-headings, context of the study, statement of the problem, operational conceptual framework, purpose of the study, research questions, hypotheses, significance of the study, scope of the study, limitations, and definition of the terms and organization of the study. Chapter two focuses on the review of related literature. In it, extant literature on the predictor, criterion and contextual variables was reviewed.
Chapter three focuses about the methodology of the study. The methods applied by the researches in collecting, analyzing and presenting the data. Chapter four centers on the presentation, analysis and interpretation of data. Chapter five revealed summary of findings, conclusion recommendations and suggestions for further study.