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THE EFFECT OF PROCESS WASTE ON ORGANIZATIONAL PRODUCTIVITY: A SURVEY OF SOME SELECTED FOOD GRADE VEGETABLE OIL MANUFACTURING COMPANY IN RIVERS STATE.




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THE EFFECT OF PROCESS WASTE ON ORGANIZATIONAL PRODUCTIVITY: A SURVEY OF SOME SELECTED FOOD GRADE VEGETABLE OIL MANUFACTURING COMPANY IN RIVERS STATE.


TABLE OF CONTENTS
PAGE
Title Page
Table of content                                                                       i
CHAPTER ONE
1.0   Introduction                                                                     1
1.1   concept of the problem                                                    1
1.2   statement of the problem                                                 2
1.3   Purpose of the study                                                                3
1.4   Research question                                                           4
1.5   research hypothesis                                                         5
1.6   scope of the study                                                            6
1.7   significance of the study                                                  6
1.8   limitation of the study                                                     7
1.9   operational definition of terms                                         7
CHAPTER TWO
2.0   review of literature                                                           10
2.1   factors that influence productivity                                   10
2.2   waste in an organization                                                  13
2.3   strategies for waste minimization in manufacturing
Service organization                                                                 20
CHAPTER THREE
3.1   Introduction                                                                     32
3.2   research design                                                                        32
3.3   population of the study                                                    33
3.4   sampling procedure and sampling size                            33
3.5   data collection methods                                                   34
3.6   questionnaire design/administration                              34
3.7   data analysis techniques                                                         34
3.8   decision rule                                                                    35


CHAPTER ONE
1.0      INTRODUCTION
1.1   CONCEPT OF THE PROBLEM
In light of the increasing attention being paid to the concept of productivity as a facilitator of competitiveness, the research thinks it is prudent to discuss the phenomenon with respect to process waste.
Productivity has been interpreted as a measure of how efficiently an organization manipulates its resource s/factors of production (human, material, capital, energy, knowledge, etc) within the production of goods and services (Gray and Jurison, 1995). However, productivity is not only related to the fostering of maximum efficiency by doing things right but also involves the attainment of maximum effectiveness (i.e. reaching organizational goals) by doing the right things. Organizational productivity can be evaluated in relation to a particular decision criterion for example prior productivity level (workers, management, company, etc), competitor productivity, industry productivity or national productivity.
Productivity within the manufacturing sector is predisposed to the planning, scheduling and controlling of physical materials, whereas within the service sector it is focused upon the flow of human customers-internal and external.
Process waste is defined as any effort that adds no value to the product or service from the customer viewpoint (Mayer, 2008).
1.2   STATEMENT OF THE PROBLEM
This study sets out to determine if there is a relationship between process waste and organizational productivity. Huffman (2008) sees waste as anything that adds cost to a production process and that does not add value to its products.
From the above definition, it can be deduced that waste adds to the cost of production but does not add to productivity in an organization.
There is waste in every organization but the ability to manage these wastes to the barest minimum leads to increase/improved organizational productivity.
The problem therefore is the possible relationship between process wastes and organizational productivity and this study is undertaken to establish that relationship and how the relationship can be managed for greater organizational productivity.
1.3   PURPOSE OF THE STUDY
We are in the era of hyper- competition. Ignoring waste (process) in an organization’s production process may give a more astute competitor advantage in today’s global market place.
Ignoring waste therefore puts it at a competitive disadvantage.
This research is aimed at x raying the effect of process waste on organizational productivity.
The purpose of this study is to determine the effect of the inverse relationship between process wastes and organizational productivity. The survey aims at examining the extent of the negative effect of process waste on organizational productivity by;
Ø    Determine what constitutes process waste in manufacturing activities.
Ø    Determine the relationship between process waste and organizational productivity.
Ø    Determine the extent to which organizational productivity is affected by process waste.
Ø    Identify strategies for minimizing process waste and,
Ø    Hence determine the strategies for maximizing productivity through process waste minimizing.
1.4   RESEARCH QUESTION
v    To what extent would unnecessary work affect organizational productivity?
v    To what extent would backups between departments affect organizational productivity?
v    To what extent would complex information management affect organizational productivity?
v    To what extent would the technology in use by the organization affects its productivity.
v    To what extent would extra waste handling and treatment affect organizational productivity.
v    To what extent would the constituents of process waste in manufacturing activities affect organization productivity?
v    To what extent would strategies for minimizing process waste improve organizational productivity?
1.5   RESEARCH HYPOTHESIS
ü    There will be a positive and significance relationship between the constituents of process waste and manufacturing activities.
ü    There will be a positive and significance relationship between process waste and organizational productivity.
ü    There will be a positive and significance relationship between process waste and the extent to which the organizational productivity is affected.
ü    There will be a positive and significance relationship between strategies for minimizing waste and organizational productivity.
ü    There will be a positive and significance relationship between the strategies for maximizing productivity and process waste minimization.
1.4   SCOPE OF THE STUDY
This study is centered on two selected food grade vegetable oil manufacturing companies in Rivers State.
The study is also centered on the process waste encountered during the processing of the raw materials (palm kernel nut) to the finished product (vegetable oil) and how it affects the organizational productivity.
1.5   SIGNIFICANCE OF THE STUDY
The significance of this study is to investigate the effect of process waste on organizational productivity.
Just like water hides the dangers of iceberg below, waste due to processing hides the underlying issues within a production environment. When process waste is not reduced, these underlying factors become exposed. If these factors are not addressed, then a shipwreck is inevitable. As (Huffman, 2008) astutely puts it:
“Ignoring waste in any organization puts its business at a competitive disadvantage. But there is waste in every organization. “companies that engage in waste elimination on an ongoing basis reduce costs while increasing efficiencies.


1.8   LIMITATION OF THE STUDY
The turbulent nature of Rivers State makes it very difficult to get complete and detailed information for the research, as most of the top management for the organization of study as expatriates.
Another limitation for this study is cost for carrying out the research, as it involves proper data gathering of information on every department in the selected organization.
1.9   OPERATIONAL DEFINITION OF TERMS
Ø    Learn Techniques: Lean is a systematic approach to identifying and eliminating waste or non-value added activities through continuous improvement by flowing the product at the pull of the customer in pursuit of perfection.
Ø    Waste: Waste is defined as anything that adds cost to a production process that does not add value to its product.
Ø    Productivity: Is a measure of how efficiency an organization manipulates its resources/factors of production within the production of goods and services.
Ø    Organizational Productivity: Can be evaluated in relation to a particular decision criterion. The organizational productivity as used in this research is determined by the organizational outputs relative to its inputs.
Ø    Process Waste: Any effort that add no value to the product or service.




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