THE ESTIMATION OF BASAL METABOLIC RATE (B.M.R) OF ADULT FEMALES IN PORT HARCOURT






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THE ESTIMATION OF BASAL METABOLIC RATE (B.M.R) OF ADULT FEMALES IN PORT HARCOURT

















ABBREVIATIONS
S/N                          -       Serial Number
A                              -       Age
YRS                          -       Years
W                             -       Weight
KG                           -       Kilograms
H                              -       Height
CM                           -       Centimeters
S.A                           -       Surface Area
M2                            -       Square Meters
M                             -       Metabolic Rate
S                              -       Specific Stature
STAND.                    -       Standard
S.D.                         -       Standard Deviation
% Dev.                     -       Percentage Deviation
B.M.R.                     -       Basal Metabolic Rate
B.M.R./HR               -       Basal Metabolic Rate Per Hour
B.M.R./M2/HR        -       Basal Metabolic Rate Per Square Meter Per Hour




LISTS OF TABLES AND GRAPHS
i.            Mean and Standard Deviation of the Age Group, Weight, Surface Area, Basal Calorie, B.M.R. from Kleiber, Du Bois and Mayo Foundation of each Age Group
ii.          Determination of % Difference Between the Mean BMR from Kleiber and Mayo Foundation of each Age Group
iii.        Mean and Standard Deviation of Basal Calories Per Hour According to Weight Range
iv.         BMR of Subjects in Present Study Compared with Mayo Foundations Standard
v.           Table of Age, Weight, Height, Surface Area, BMR, Standard and % Deviation of each of the $80 Subjects of Study
vi.         A Graphic of Height against Surface Area
vii.       A Graph of Surface Area against Weight
viii.     A Graph of Basal Calorie against Weight
ix.         A Graph Basal Calorie against Age
x.           A Graph of Basal Metabolic Rate against Age
xi.         A Graph of Surface Area against Basal Calorie










TABLE OF CONTENTS

Title Page                                                                                 i
Certification                                                                             ii
Dedication                                                                               iii
Acknowledgment                                                                     iv
Abstract                                                                                   v
Table of Contents                                                                     vi
List of Tables and Graphs                                                                vii
Introduction
Literature Review
Materials and Methods
Results
Discussion
Source of Error
Summary
Conclusion
Appendix A
Appendix B
Appendix C
Bibliography



CHAPTER ONE
INTRODUCTION
        Metabolism comes from a Greek word “metaballein” meaning to change or alter. Broadly speaking, metabolism may be defined as tissue change. It is the chemical process of transforming complex body substance into simple ones, along with the production of heat and energy. The rate of metabolism depends on the amount of physical work which the body does and therefore, can be reduced if the subject remains completely at rest. But even when all unnecessary movements are stopped a certain amount of energy is used in maintaining life and prevents processes from falling below the normal level. This cannot be further reduced without damage to the tissues. This amount of metabolism is considered the basal level.
        Basal metabolism is thus the term used to describe the biochemical changes which takes place while the individuals is lying down, still relaxed and warm. It could be said to be the energy required to maintain: cellular activity, respiration, circulation and other vegetative processes in the resting, fasting body. The rate at which energy is used up while the body is in this condition is defined as the basal metabolic rate (B.M.R.).
        Basal metabolic rate is therefore the rate at which the body uses energy for maintaining minimal bodily functions, such as: body temperature, respiration, and heart beat when at rest. This level of energy excludes: restlessness, fear, muscular movements, previous exercise, influence of food, elevation of body temperature, mental and physical initiation, as well as extremes of environmental temperature.
        The total heat production or energy expenditure of the body is the sum of energy required merely for maintaining life (basal) and that required carrying out all undertaken physical activities and the effect of Specific Dynamic Action (S.D.A) of food. Heat production comes about as a result of oxidation of food at the tissue level; FOOD + 02 = ENERGY + C02.
        Oxygen consumption method is thus used to determine the rate of metabolism in the man because it relates to the amount of energy that is produced (INDIRECT CALORIMETRY). The heat produced is lost to the atmosphere from the exposed body surfaces. Through direct calorimetry, the amount of loss is measured.
        The estimation of the basal metabolic rate is useful in a study of some diseases, notably in disorders of the thyroid gland. The precise knowledge of the calorie requirement for populations is of vital importance to a proper food distribution planning policy of any state or country.
        The universally accepted value of basal metabolic rate for adult males is 40Kcal/m2/hr, 37K cal/m2/hr for adult females. The male and the young, shows tendencies for higher basal metabolic rate values. Clinically, the basal metabolic rate is expressed as a percentage above or below the accepted normal standard for specific ages. A deviation of + 15% from fixed value is accepted to be normal.
        BASAL METABOLIC RATE       MALES     FEMALES
          (B.M.R) IN KCAL/M2/HR                  40.0         37.0
           FOR ADULTS
The basal metabolic rate expressed as the calorie needs is measured in Kcal/m2/hr. It is estimated using the food normogram which was developed by W.M. Boothby and Sandiford.
        In Nigeria little work has been done in this area of study. The available standards are for whites with blacks. There is great need therefore to determine if the basal metabolic rate for adult females in port Harcourt relates in any to that abroad where work has been done and if there are differences between the various age groups





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