TRANSFORMATIONAL LEADERSHIP STYLE AND EMPLOYEES’ WORK PASSION: A STUDY OF SELECT OIL AND GAS COMPANIES IN NIGERIA.
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TRANSFORMATIONAL LEADERSHIP STYLE AND EMPLOYEES’ WORK PASSION: A STUDY OF SELECT OIL AND GAS COMPANIES IN NIGERIA.
TABLE OF CONTENTS
CHAPTER ONE: INTRODUCTION
1.1 context of the problem 1
1.2 statement of problem 7
1.3 conceptual framework 8
1.4 purpose of study 9
1.5 research questions 10
1.6 hypothesis 11
1.7 significance of study 12
1.8 scope of study 12
1.9 limitation of the study 13
1.10 conceptual definition of terms 14
1.11 organization of study 16
CHAPTER TWO: LITERATURE REVIEW
2.0 Introduction 20
2.1 transformational leadership defined 20
2.2 employee work passion defined 27
2.2.1 passion towards activities 29
2.2.1 passion for work 33
2.3 dimension of transformation leadership 35
2.3.1 idealized influence 36
2.3.2 inspirational motivation 37
2.3.3 intellectual stimulation 38
2.3.4 individualized consideration 39
2.4 measures of employee work passion 40
2.4.1 obsessive passion 41
2.4.2 harmonious passion 41
2.5 relationship between transformational leadership style
and employee work passion 45
2.6 the moderating effect of corporate culture on the
relationship between transformational leadership and employee work passion 54
2.7 Summary 56
CHAPTER THREE: RESEARCH METHODOLOGY
3.0 Introduction 62
3.1 research design 62
3.2 sampling procedure/sample size determination 63
3.3 data collection methods 66
3.4 operational measures of the variables 66
3.4.1 independent variables: transformational leadership 66
3.4.2 dependent variable: employee work passion 69
3.4.3 moderating variables: corporate culture 70
3.5 test of validity and reliability 71
3.6 data analysis techniques 73
1.1 CONTEXT OF PROBLEM
“When I stop working, the rest of my day is posthumous. I’m only really alive when I’m working”- Tennessee Williams.
Work is probably the single most important activity in one’s life. We spend considerable time is schooling and training so that we get the opportunity to work someday. Once we embark in the work force, we typically devote more than half of our waking time to work either directly on the job, or indirectly by thinking or talking about job-related matters (Vllaerand and Houlfort, 2003).
Even after retirement, people often continue to engage in activities related to their former job. This is because work serves to define us. Because work is so central to most of us, we are not only people who work in computers, management, or sales, we are computer analysts, managers, or sales persons. This self-definition serves an important intrapersonal function. While some people may not care that much about work as they merely see it as labour, others see it as part of who they are deep down, it becomes part of their identity (Vallerand and Houlfort, 2003). They love their work and it has become part of who they are. They can’t wait to get work in the morning and it seems that the day doesn’t have enough hours to do the things they want to do at work. They have become passionate about their work. Like expressed in the opening quote, these people seem to derive a major sense of excitement and pleasure from their work. They feel alive at work. Passion toward work, therefore, may be expected to lead to adaptive outcomes.
Work is an important part of lie if only because it monopolizes close to half of one’s daily life, not including commuting time or the many years of training. While some people see their job as a pay cheque or a stepping stone to a higher position, others value their work to the point of considering it a vocation (Wrzeshniewsk, McCauley, Rozin, & Schwartz, 1997). Indeed, work is so important for someone people that it gives meaning to their existence (Morin& Dassa, 2006,Wrzesniewski, 2003) and becomes part of their identity (Vallerand & Houlfort, 2003). Yet, people who deeply value their work do not necessarily engage in it similarly. The quality and quantity of work involvement greatly vary across people and this has important consequences. Nested in the general positive psychology approach (Seligman & Csiksszenmihalyi, 2002), the motivational perspective of passion (Vallerand et al., 2003; Vallerand, 2008) can shed light on the mechanisms through which different of time and energy investment in various activities impact people’s affect, cognition, and behaviours. In the work domain, the theory of passion contributes to the general positive organizational scholarship (Cameron, Dutton, & Quinn, 2003) approach, which aims at studying the “positive outcomes, processes and attributes of organizations and their members”. So what exactly is passionate employee? A passionate employee is focused, engaged, and committed to consistently perform at his best. He feels strongly about the work he does, knowing that he is creating value, and he has a strong emotional connection with the organization he works for he feels a sense of pride and commitment towards the organization. As a result, he delivers exceptional value to his customers, both external and internal.
As activities increasingly span departmental or functional boundaries, the need for teamwork, shared responsibilities, and consultative activities is unusually high. Employees may need to exhibit a high degree of behaviour not explicitly in formal job descriptions. In addition, at the managerial levels, job descriptions are not exhaustive and often managers are expected to engage in organizational citizenship behavior (Podsakoff, Mackenzie, Paine, and Bacharch, 2000). As it would be beneficial for an organization if explicit job functions but beneficial to the organizations goal achievement, the next important questions would be: How can organizations increase these behaviours by eliciting passion in its employees? Transformational leaders motivate and inspire their followers to go beyond the call of duty so that they are willing to put in extra effort on the job, help their co-workers, and engage in other organizationally beneficial activities (Bass, 1998). This paper will leadership in influencing the emergence of passion at work in followers.
Is passion needed for excellent performance? The questions of what predicts outstanding performance at work remain timely and relevant. The term “passion for work” emerged from qualitative research on entrepreneurs motivation, and has been defined as a selfish, passionate love for the work (Shane et al., 2003). Passion for work has been proposed as key to understanding entrepreneurial behavior and performance. Passion is “the enthusiasm. Joy, and even zeal that come from the energetic and unflagging. However, few attempts have been made so far as to operationalize the construct, let alone relate it to entrepreneurial behavior.
In the current economic downturn, organizations are experiencing tremendous challenges to maintain a competitive advantage on the global front. Change has become a constant, as organizations need to reinvent themselves and become more innovative to deal with more competitive pricing structures and branding strategies to position themselves optimally in a cutthroat environment. Today more than ever, the “people component”, and more specifically the ability to attract and retain the “knowledge worker” (Bargaim, 2003), has become one of the most important predictors of organizational success (Kahumuza and Schlechater, 2008).
This holds important implications for organizations that strive to be the best in their markets and to maintain a competitive advantage. They need to outsmart their competition in terms of attracting and retaining their pool of knowledge talent. They need to find ways to understand and manage the psychological mechanisms that do not only deliver excellent performance, but also prevent their talent from nurturing intentions to quit and promoting employee passion.
One of the attributes of transformational leadership according to (Zigarmi, Houson and Witt, 2007) is its ability to transform employees to pursue organizational goals over self-interest. “Transformational leaders encourage their employees to do exceptional things. Leaders excite passion and help their employees look beyond their own interest and look for the interest of the organization, (ZIgarmi, Houson and Witt, 2007).
Research evidence from authors such as Zabihi, Hashemzehi, Tabrizi (2012). Moghandam, Moosvai, Dousti (2013), Krishan and Pooja (2008) have established that Transformational leadership style brings about extra role performance from employees in terms. Results of past researchers show that transformational leadership has been consistently linked to followers’ higher level of organizational citizenship behavior (OCB) (Bass, 1985; Organ, 1988; Podsakoff et al, 1990; Howell and Avolio, 1993; Wang, law, Hackett, Wang, Chen, 2005; Schlechter and Engelbrecht, 2006; Boerner, Eisenbeisis, Griesser, 2007) and OCB can in some way be likened to employee passion in terms of extra role performance.
There are also past research evidence that have successfully established a positive relationship between transformational leadership style and employee engagement (Hayati, Charkhabi and Naami 2014); slanova, Lorente, Chambel and Martinez, 2011; Tims, Bakker, Xanthopoulou, 2011; Raja (2012). Looking at employee work passion and judging from the similarities in behaviour exhibited with OCB and employee work engagement in terms of the effects of Transformational Leadership style in eliciting extra role performance and also considering the fact that there has been little or no research in the past connecting transformational leadership with employee work passion, has led to my interest in determining the relationship between transformational leadership and employee work passion.
There is paucity of materials on the relationship between the two concepts but I will attempt to establish to correlation of the two. Mere looking at the definition of transformational leadership it will be expected that it would have an effect of the kind and level of employee work passion. We would be looking at conceptualization of passion and show its applicability to the realm of work and organizations. Passion is defined as a strong inclination toward an activity that people like, that they find important, and in which they invest time and energy. Two types of passion are proposed: obsessive and harmonious. Obsessive passion refers to a controlled internalization of an activity in one’s identity that creates an internal pressure to engage in the activity that the person likes.
Harmonious passion promotes healthy adaptation whereas obsessive passion thwarts it by causing negative affect and rigid persistence. Results from a series of studies are presented, including some conducted in the work domain.
Blanchard (2008) defines employee passion as “the positive emotional state of mind resulting from perceptions of worthwhile work, autonomy, collaboration, growth, fairness, recognition, connectedness to leader, all of which lead to standards of behavior that include discretionary effort, lower turnovers and increased tenure.” From the definition above it can be seen that connectedness to leader is just one of several factors that influence employee’s passion at work and by the time we throw in perception into the equation which is a factor that is as unique from one individual to another as finger prints, it becomes less than straightforward in establishing the relationship between the two concepts.
Having a solid relationship with one’s leader and colleagues that is based on integrity and trust is a key component in creating employee passion. People need leaders who share information and make an effort to build rapport. Leaders who take interest in their employees and shares personal information are more likely to establish and maintain connectedness with direct reports than those who do not (Zigarmi, Houson and Witt, 2007).
Ayers, K.E., & Cahill, F. (2012) in their paper, tested the idea that most employees are passionate about what they do, but that many are not passionate about their employer. They found that a large majority is passionate over all either about the organization and or the job. But of these employees, only roughly half are passionate about the organization. This gap the passion deficit underlines the hidden emotional disconnect among otherwise engaged employees of the employees the surveyed, 85% are passionate about the work they do each day, but only 48% are passionate both about the job and the organization. The gap between the 48% and the remaining 37% is significant. In terms of their emotional connection to the organization, the 37% are closer to totally disconnected employees than they are to the 48% who are passionate about the job and the organization.
According to Gary Hamel in his book The Future of Management, passion contributes more towards value creation than any other human capability. Given the primary purpose of your organization is to deliver value to your customers, the more passionate your employees are the more value you will deliver. In order to establish a customer focused culture, in which all employees act as veritable ambassadors for the organization, it is essential to ensure that employees are passionate about the organization as well as the job they do.
1.2 STATEMENT OF PROBLEM
The Oil and Gas industry has been embroiled in series of controversies from time immemorial. There seems to be very low level of accountability and poor performance of oil and gas assets especially state owned to say the least. The sector is shrouded in secrecy and information gotten from any of the agencies seems to be inconsistent. Many administrations have attempted to implement and institutionalize best global practice but have been unsuccessful. Most recently in the minds of most Nigerians is the fuel subsidy scandal. A lot of the facilities in the sector are working low capacity utilization, at best we get 60% of installed capacity been utilized. This has led to incessant shortage of petroleum products putting it mildly and massive importation to augment for the shortfall.
All these have prompted me to tilt more towards but not limited to studying select Public sector oil and gas companies/agencies namely; IDSL, PHRC, NLNG AND DPR in port Harcourt rivers state, attempting to establish if the workers are passionate about the work, the level and type of passion that exist and to see the effect of the leadership with emphasis on transformational leadership with emphasis on transformational leadership style on the employees passion at work. To this end, this research will apply the dimensions of transformational leadership style to investigate its relationship with employee work passion.
1.3 CONCEPTUAL FRAMEWORK
FIGURE 1.1: CONCEPTUAL FRAMEWORK SHOWING THE HYPOTHESIZED RELATIONSHIP BETWEEN TRANSFORMATIONAL LEADERSHIP AND EMPLOYEE WORK PASSION.
Source: Conceptualized by the Researcher
The model above indicates how the dimensions of our independent variables (transformational leadership) can affect the measure of our dependent variable (employee work passion), holding the moderating variable (culture of the organization) constant.
This model explains the intersection of the dimensions of the predictor variable (transformational leadership) and measures of the criterion variable (employee work passion). On the left hand side of the model we have the predictor variable (transformational leadership). The dimensions of this variable according to Bass and Avolio (1992) include: idealized influence, intellectual stimulation, inspiration motivation, individualize consideration. On the right side of the model we have measures of criterion variable (employee work passion). The measures of this variable according to Vallerand and Houlfort (2003) include: harmonious passion, obsessive passion. Finally, in the center we have the moderating variable (corporate culture). We are assuming that the relationship between the independent variable and the dependent variable may be direct or moderated by corporate culture.
1.4 PURPOSE OF STUDY
The purpose of the study is to examine the relationship between Transformations Leadership style and Employee work Passion. The main objective for this study is to ascertain the Transformational Leadership style and employee work passion. The specific objectives in this study include:
1. To ascertain the relationship between idealized influenced and harmonious passion.
2. To ascertain the relationship between idealized influence and obsessive passion.
3. To find out the relationship between intellectual simulation and harmonious passion.
4. To find out the relationship between intellectual stimulation and obsessive passion.
5. To examine the relationship between inspirational motivation and harmonious passion.
6. To investigate the relationship between individualize consideration and obsessive passion.
7. To ascertain whether corporate culture will moderate the influence of transformational leadership style on employee work passion.
1.5 RESEARCH QUESTIONS
The main focus research question for this study is; what is the relationship between transformational leadership style and employee work passion. More specifically, this study seeks to address the following research questions:
a. What is the relationship between idealized influence and harmonious passion.
b. what is the relationship between idealized influence and obsessive passion.
c. what is the influence of intellectual stimulation on harmonious passion.
d. what is the influence of intellectual stimulation on obsessive passion.
e. what is the relationship between inspirational motivation and harmonious passion.
f. what is the relationship between inspirational motivation and obsessive passion.
g. what is the influence of individualize consideration on harmonious passion.
h. what is the influence of individualize consideration on obsessive passion will corporate culture moderate the influence of transformational leadership style on employee work passion.
H01: There is no significant relationship between idealized influence and harmonious passion.
H02: There is no significant relationship between idealized influence and obsessive passion.
H03: There is no significant relationship between intellectual stimulation and harmonious passion.
H04: There is no significant relationship between intellectual stimulation and obsessive passion.
H05: There is no significant relationship between inspirational motivation and harmonious passion.
H06: There is no significant relationship between inspirational motivation and obsessive passion.
H07: There is no significant relationship between individualize consideration and harmonious passion.
H08: There is no significant relationship between individualize consideration and obsessive passion.
H09: Corporate culture will not moderate the relationship between transformational leadership style on employee work passion.
1.7 SIGNIFICANCE OF THE STUDY
The potential contribution of this study can be discussed from both theoretical and practical perspectives. This study contributes to the theoretical advancement in the field of research by introducing congruence between transformational leadership style and employee work passion, and investigating the impact of such congruence on employee behaviors and performance. This study provides empirical tests of the relationship among transformational leadership and employee work passion.
This will enable workers look beyond their interest and look for the interest of the organization thereby eliciting high performance from the employees. So from a practical perspective, having established the correlation between the two concepts, this research should assist managers decide on the leadership approach that would be best suitable for exciting passion from their employees and subsequently high performance.
Due to paucity of research relating these two concepts together, this research will help highlight the effectiveness of transformational leadership style in eliciting passion form employees in organizations and in so doing add to the body of knowledge with respect to these two concepts.
Most importantly this research will help broaden my horizon by adding to my depth of knowledge of management and behavioural science and this will further help me manage my subordinates better in my place to work.
1.8 SCOPE OF THE STUDY
The review of related literature for this study will be restricted to literature on transformational leadership style and its dimensions, employees work passion and its measures, as well as the moderating role of corporate culture in the relationship between the independent and dependent variables.
This study is restricted to the Oil and Gas industry in the Nigeria.
Study Unit Scope
The study units of analysis will be the individual level of analysis. Thus, copies of the questionnaire will be distributed to employees of select Oil and Gas companies.
1.9 LIMITATION OF THE STUDY
The study encountered several limitations.
Ø Difficulty in gathering data due to general anxiety and fear of confidentiality expressed by sample elements. It has been difficult to administer the questionnaire through the human resource departments of the some agencies so as to make responses more authentic, so the questionnaires were administer informally on a man known man basis in those specific cases.
Ø Sensitivity of sample elements; some of the respondents showed reluctance in divulging information relating to their organization, hence, some respondents were unable to complete the questionnaire correctly which rendered a few of them unusable.
Ø There is paucity of materials on the topics being researched due to the fact that is area have hardly been researched in this part of the world, hence more time is needed in order to carry out a more comprehensive research in order to do justice to this very rich topic.
Ø The time frame within which the research was carried out was grossly inadequate. For a more in depth research into this topic a longer time period would be immensely beneficial to the researcher.
Nevertheless, these limitations have not stultified my efforts in carry out the research that I hope will contribute to the existing body of knowledge. More so, as well as be mindful of the instructive observation, it is not always to conduct investigation that is one hundred percent scientific. Thus we have made every effort to maximize the use of research instruments at our disposal.
1.10 CONCEPTUAL DEFINITION OF TERMS
Employee Work passion is the positive emotional state of mind resulting from perceptions of worthwhile work, autonomy, collaboration, growth, fairness, recognition, connectedness to colleagues, and connectedness to leader, all of which lead to standards of behaviour that include discretionary effort, long term commitment to the organization, peak performance, low turnover, and increased tenure with the organization.
Harmonious Passion refers to an autonomous internalization that leads individuals to choose to engage in the activity that they like.
Idealized Influence is concerned with charismatic actions by the leader related to values, beliefs and mission. In this component, it is believed that charismatic behaviour by the leader fosters strong emotional bonds with followers based on faith, trust, respect and pride. The behaviour of the leader becomes idealized and manifest in collective values and actions within the organization, as the leader provides a compelling vision, mission and high standards for emulation.
Individual Consideration is where the leader recognizes the individual’s uniqueness and individual needs and provides support, encouragement and leaders also link the individuals needs to that of the organization to enable opportunities for growth and self-actualization
Inspirational Motivation involves the development and communication of an appealing vision that provides shared and challenging goals, and arouses team spirit, enthusiasm and optimism by modeling the behaviour that are achieve a challenging but achievable vision.
Intellectual Stimulation involves behavour by the leader that encourages new ways of solving problems and innovative ways of executing daily responsibilities by challenging the beliefs and values of the followers, as well followers as that of their leaders and the organization. The leader appeals to the followers logic sand analysis and the followers are encouraged to take intellectual risks and challenge the status quo.
Obsessive Passion refers to a controlled internalization of an activity in one’s identity that creates an internal pressure to engage in the activity that the person likes.
Transformational Leadership is the leadership styles that inspires followers to transcend follower’s self-interest for the good of the organization and are capable of having a profound and extra ordinary on the followers concern.
1.11 ORGANIZATION OF STUDY
The study will be presented in five chapters
The first chapter introduces the study. It will highlight the context of the problem, statement of the problem, conceptual framework, purpose of study, research questions, significance of the study, scope of the study, the limitations of study and operational of terms.
The second chapter will focus on the review of related literature.
The third chapter will deal with the research methodology and will highlight the research design, population of study sample size and sampling technique, method of data collection, data analysis technique, validity and reliability of instrument, measurement of variables and instrument design and administration.
The fourth chapter will focus on data presentation and discussion on findings.
The fifth chapter will focus on the discussion of findings, conclusion, and recommendations as well suggestions for further research.