THEATRE MANAGEMENT IN DELTA STATE COUNCIL FOR ARTS AND CULTURE A CASE STUDY OF DELTA STATE COUNCIL FOR ARTS AND CULTURE
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THEATRE MANAGEMENT IN DELTA STATE COUNCIL FOR ARTS AND CULTURE
A CASE STUDY OF DELTA STATE COUNCIL FOR ARTS AND CULTURE
The emphasis of this research is to reveal that theatre management in Nigeria can be traced from the origin of Nigeria theatre. This work has been divided into five chapters, first chapter one looks into the following: Definition of terms, like what is theatre? Who is Manager? Geographical location of Arts and Culture, second chapter will examine the programme literature review, such as: the origin of Nigeria theatre, the origin of theatre manager in Nigeria. Third chapter discusses the brief history of the Delta State Arts and Culture which is my case study and also the relationship between the theatre manager and Nigeria theatre, organizational form of Delta State, other department in the council, summary. Fourth chapter brings us to the problems and prospects to the theatre manager in Nigeria theatre. Finally is the fifth chapter, which centers on the discussion of findings, conclusion and bibliography.
TABLE OF CONTENTS
Title Page - - - - - - - - - - i
Certification - - - - - - - - - ii
Dedication - - - - - - - - - iii
Acknowledgement - - - - - - - - iv
Abstract - - - - - - - - - - vi
Table of Contents - - - - - - - - vii
Research Methodology - - - - - - - viii
Scope and Limitation - - - - - - - ix
Justification of Study - - - - - - - x
Introduction - - - - - - - - - xi
1.1 Theatre: What is Theatre?
1.2 Manager: Who is a Manager?
CHAPTER TWO: LITERATURE REVIEW
2.1 The Origin of Nigeria Theatre
2.2 The Origin of Theatre Manager in Nigeria
CHAPTER THREE: THE THEATRE MANAGER AND NIGERIA THEATRE, STUDY OF DELTA STATE ARTS AND CULTURE
3.1 Brief History of the Delta State Arts and Culture
3.2 Organizational form of Delta State Council
3.3 Other Department in the Council
4.1 Theatre: Problems and Prospects
4.2 The Duties of a Theatre Manager at the Different Stages of a Production
5.1 Discussion and Findings
5.3 Recommendation for Further Research
5.4 Suggestion for Further Research
In order to determine the impact of a manager in theatre management job performance, adopted the composite aspect of communication satisfaction variables used in management by Doun et al, (1974) cited in urban (1976:64) in their factor analytical study of communication and management and job satisfaction of employees from heterogeneous organization in the United States public service. To this effect communication on manager’s performance are measured under the following references:
i. Explanation of police in answer to employee’s question in relation to his job.
ii. Understanding what is expected of a manager in the performance of this job.
iii. Adequacy of information on those council matters
iv. The degree to which managers make effort to understand feelings and problem f those under his office.
v. The level of corporation between the manager and his subordinates in the theatre industry.
vi. The way of meeting written directives, oral information, publication, departmental notice have impact on his job performance.
vii. The feeling of his subordinate in carrying out instructions.
SCOPE AND LIMITATION
The scope of this study shall be from the origin of theatre management in Nigeria, Delta State precisely till date. It will look into the historical origin of Delta State Council for Arts and Culture and the role and function of post manager up till date to enable the people know the impact of a theatre manager in the Nigeria theatre.
JUSTIFICATION OF THE STUDY
After all interaction, reading and comparison on theatre management, the researcher sees the theatre manager to be somebody with the following qualities, knowledge ability in art with which he is concerned, an impresario, labor negotiator, diplomat, educator, publicity and public relations expert, politician, skilled businessman, a social sophisticate, a servant of community, a tireless leader – becomingly humble before authority, a teacher, a tyrant and a continuing student of the arts. In conclusion, somebody that is versatile is all it takes to be theatre manager.
The management of a theatre production is a shared responsibility between the theatre manager and other staff of the theatre. Theatre management in this context stands for the procurement harmonization and effective utilization of the human and material resources of the theatre to achieve some objectives. These objectives could include entertainment, education and information of audience. It can also include persuasion, maximization of profit, and expression of the arts in its genuine form and the acquisition of social motivation as being behind a production. Each engenders a lot of administrative responsibilities for the theatre staff which can be categorized into commercial, artistic and technical staff.
The execution of management functions involves some overlapping“. This is in the sense that some administrative staff that by their classification should perform only commercial functions also performs some artistic functions. The same thing applies to some artistic staff. A stage manager, for instance, is classified into the artistic side but he supervises backstage activities which include control of artistes backstage, the provision of the necessary props and consumes required for the production and the maintenance of discipline backstage. The latter is more administrative than artistic.
The roles of a theatre manager which can also be assumed to be his responsibilities can be stated in accordance with the stages of production. In the pre-production stage which is quite often dominated by research and contacts, gives the manager its first set of challenges which includes recruitment of staff, convening production meetings where he and his staff decide on the venue and the venue and the date of production.
Also on the pre-production stage, the manager performs the function of selecting production materials, approve right, making arrangement for tryout and casting and also the provision of equipment and materials. In the rehearsal stage, the duties of the manager includes supervision of staff which include the director, the actors, technical staff, publicity and box office personnel’s and the supervision of the house manager.
On the performance day, the manager plays host to top functionaries and sponsors who have been invited to the production. He receives reports from staff and the audience and also ensures that there is security, peace and order in the theatre.
At the post performance stage, the duties of the theatre manger do not end with the conclusion of the performance. He collects the production reports from various unit heads. He also endorses letters of appreciation to sponsors, angels and the press. All these function are not seen on display by the theatre manager in the Nigeria theatre today because of their lack of versatility.
According to the Rocky Feller Panel, report of 1982, a theatre manager is a person who is knowledgeable in the art with which he is concerned, an impresario, labour negotiator, diplomat, educator, publicity and public relations experts, politician, skilled businessman, a social sophisticate, a servant of the community, a fireless leader – becomingly humble before authority – a teacher a tyrant and a continuing student of the arts, (Stephen Kingsley 1974:22).
But the managers say, it has to do with lack of conductive theatre environment and inadequate financial support. The work is undertaken to examine the impact of a theatre manager in Nigeria as it affects theatre management.
It is aimed at discussing the role and function of a theatre manager, the Delta State experience wills not only review the way theatre is managed in Delta State presently but also the past to enable the researcher picture the future.
1.1 THEATRE: WHAT IS THEATRE?
The word theatre in most cases is misunderstood for drama. While drama is the thing done, theatre is doing, theatre is doing I.C. OHIRI in theatre practice and production management pg. 10 2001. The thing done can turn be described as the event while doing is an art? This is why, in a more specific way, theatre is said to be an experience – the ephemeral – experience that involves our personnel presence and which changes from – moment to moment as we encounter a series of shifting impressions and stimuli in chairman’s opinion.
i. Theatre proceeds drama: This historical fact has immense aesthetic importance but in our traditional modern theatre we reverse the process. We convert or ‘translate’ drama into theatre. This creates a confusion from which theatre criticism and theatre practice have both suffered…. Drama is the child of the theatre. It goes to my heart that the child should be brought up to despite its parents. (Harold Chairman 1972; ix). The major differences between drama and theatre Lynn McGregor, Trace and Ken Robinson (1997:19) states that:
ii. The most obvious differences are the idea of performance. The word “theatre” means a number of the work of the artiest and technicians who are part of it. But the concept of “theatre” is to do with performance. Theatre exists in performance, in communication audience.
From historical perspective, this assertion – holds some truth but interpreted in the sense of drama being the even and theatre the ephemeral experience gained through the event, if would be evident that the event (drama) proceeds the impression or experience (theatre). If has been observes that both drama and theatre involves performance but that while drama can take place without an audience, theatre is performance designed or planned for execution before an audience.
Theatre is an extremely complex institution, that involves various department as in playwriting, directing, acting, costume, make-up, scenery, lighting, properties, theatre architecture, machinery, special effects management, audience and criticism, as well as the relationship of the theatre to the society and culture in which it appears.
Theatre is believed originated from the Greek “theatron” which means a place of seeing as accepted by scholars like John Gassuers through Edwin Wilson to Richard Courtney to Ferzy and Oscar bracket to mention but a few.
Jerzy Grotowski defined theatre as a place where an actor recites a written text, illustrating it with series of movements in other to make it more easily understood.
From the African perspective, Dr. Stanly Obuh sees “theatre” as a transaction between the actor, the performer and the audience; it has to be designed for presentation before an audience in other for it to be theatre, (McGregor et al 1977:19).
1.2 MANAGER: WHO IS A MANAGER?
A manager according to the “Longman Dictionary pg. 870” is someone whose job is to manage part of all company or other organization. In its second meaning the Longman defined manager as someone who is in charge of the business affairs of a singer, an actor etc. The business man sees a manager as a motivator for and the head of risk bearing. But in theatre, the manager is the head of the commercial aspect of the theatre. In a production they relates with every staff of the theatre. His roles include:
i. To recruit other staff
ii. Convening production meetings where decisions are taken on the production materials and other issues.
iii. To choose the production material or script and encourage research into the chosen areas and materials – plays, scenario, dances etc.
iv. To secure production right if need be
v. To secure accommodation for tryout and casting
vi. To supervise the rehearsals, the designs and the presentation
vii. To provide the materials – props, costumes etc.
viii. To supervise other theatres staff must be very cordial in order to achieve the theatres or production’s goals. A good relationship with the playwright enhances his chances of securing the production permit or right easily.
In summary, a theatre manager must be versatile in achieving the aim and objective of a production or theatre. There must be reference and work cited in every chapter – where are they/in this project? All the items are wrongly entered?