WORKPLACE INCIVILITY AND EMPLOYEES’ INTENTION TO STAY IN SELECTED OIL AND GAS COMPANIES IN RIVERS STATE.
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WORKPLACE INCIVILITY AND EMPLOYEES’ INTENTION TO STAY IN SELECTED OIL AND GAS COMPANIES IN RIVERS STATE.
TABLE OF CONTENTS
Context of the Problem 1
Statement of the problem 3
Conceptual framework 5
Purpose of the study 6
Research questions 6
Research hypotheses 7
Significance of the study 7
Scope of the study 8
Limitation of the study 8
Operational definition of terms 9
Workplace incivility defined 12
Intention to say Defined 14
Dimensions of workplace incivility 17
Measures of Employees intention to stay 26
Relationship between workplace Incivility and
intention to stay 27
Moderating role of corporate culture on intention to stay 32
Research design 39
Population of the study 40
Sampling procedure/sample size determination 40
Data collection methods 42
Operational measures of the variables 42
Test of validity and reliability 45
Data analysis technique 46
Letter of Introduction
1.1 CONTEXT OF THE PROBLEM
Employees are the most valuable assets of every organization, without them, achieving organizational goals would be impossible. They are the vehicle on which the organization rests and one of the greatest challenges faced by the Human Resources unit of most organizations is retaining these employees. The contemporary organization would do all within its capacity to ensure that employee turnover rate is kept as low as practicable because of the associated negative impacts on the organization, which could range from cost involved in recruiting and training of new employees to destabilization of the organization’s human resources supply.
It is the responsibility of the Human Resources unit to be conscious of the organization’s employee retention capacity at every point in time in order to be able to develop and maintain fit-for purpose strategies and policies. In doing this, they must have an in-depth understanding of the real reasons why employees would prefer to remain in the organization and not simply people’s perception. This is because sometimes, the attractive salaries and pleasant working condition offered cannot guarantee employees’ loyalty and commitment to the organization as there are many other factors that influence employees’ intention to stay in the organization. It is also pertinent to state that just as Frederick Henzberg posited in this Two-factor theory, the opposite factors that result in employee turnover may not be responsible for employees’ intention to stay. For instance, low salaries could account for high employee turnover, but high salaries on the other hand, may not positively influence employee’s intention to stay.
Majority of the organizational studies have had their focus on the very obvious elements within and outside the organization that have the capacity to impact one aspect of the organization or another. For instance, a lot of studies on improving employee as well as organizational performance have been undertaken using dependent variables. But not much has been said about incivility in the workplace and its impact on the organization, especially in Nigeria. This could partly be as result of the fact that not many managers have come to terms with the fact that there are benefits in properly managing and curtailing workplace incivility in their organizations, and that incivility, if not put under check, could result in serious cost implication to the organization. Incivility or employee lack of regard for one another is costly to organizations in subtle and pervasive ways. Although uncivil behaviours occur commonly, many organization fail to recognize them, few understand their harmful effects, and most managers and executives are ill equipped to deal with them. (Pearson, C.M. & Porath C.L., 2005).
Organization today are much concerned with ensuring that the workplace is free of violence and other conspicuous unethical behaviour which are easily identified as detrimental to the growth and progress of the organization. But at the same time, they neglect the seemingly lesser forms of interpersonal mistreatment which unknown to them, could metamorphose form a misdemeanor to an epidemic of bad and uncivil behaviours within the organization.
Pearson and Porath argued in their book titled “The cost of Bad Behaviour”, that petty incidence of workplace rudeness exact a staggering economic toll that managers would be foolish to ignore. According to their study, incivility unleashes a set of complicated and destructive dynamics on individuals, teams, and organizations that impede performance and create organizational dysfunction on a number of levels leading to diminished financial results. From their research on workplace incivility among American and Canadian employees, they discovered that employees who experience incivility were deeply affected and most took corresponding actions to get even either directly or indirectly, with the perpetrators.
Most of the employees that were targets of incivility internationally lowered their productivity, cut back work hours, lost respect for their bosses, put in minimal acceptable effort, and sometimes even left their jobs.
There is a phenomenal amount of cost and types of cost that are attributable to incivility, and it is against this background that this study seeks to assess incivility in the Nigerian work context, using the oil and gas sector as a case study. Therefore, this study seeks to ascertain the relationship between workplace incivility and the intention of employees to stay in selected oil and gas companies in Rivers State.
1.2 STATEMENT OF THE PROBLEM
Several studies have shown that intention to stay is the most important determinant of turnover (Tett 7 Meyer, 1993; Igharia & Greenhaus, 1992) Dalessio, et al (1986) were of the opinion that greater attention should be placed on intention to stay rather than turnover, as whenever an employee leaves, an organization has to incur the cost of recruiting and maintaining a new employee. There is no gainsaying whether or not incivility exists in the Nigerian work environments, as such the essence of this study is not determine if it exists within the Nigeria Oil and Gas industry or not. A system made up of human and human interactions where incivility or uncivil behaviours are never found is a “perfect” system.
According to Sigmund Freud’s parallel of humans and porcupines “like porcupines, people prick and injure one another if they get too close; they feel cold if they get too far apart”. Studies show that most American business has an incivility problem and uncivil behaviours continue to be on the rise. This discovery is made possible because American researches have dedicated time, efforts and other resources ins studying that aspect of the American business with a view of not only creating awareness, but also to proffer solutions on how to tackle this workplace phenomenon. About on fourth of the workers studied by Pearson and Porath in 1998, said they were treated rudely one or more per week and by 2005, the number had risen to nearly half. They reported that 95 percent of the workers in 2005 confessed to have experienced incivility from their coworkers. A study by Gallup, a research-based performance management consulting firm, tiled “Feeling Good Mattes in the Workplace” found that 73 percent of workers do not feel good. 14 percent of the respondent say that they are actively disengaged as a result, and they admitted to doing what they can to undermine their organizations and their coworkers.
Workplace incivility has devastating impact on employees as well as the organization as a whole. When it becomes widespread in the workplace, the stress level of employees could rise, their performance could suffer, and they can become de-motivated, apathetic and even angry. A review of existing literatures revealed that efforts have been expended by researches in trying to provide a theoretical framework in order to identify the antecedents and consequences of workplace incivility (Anderson and Pearson, 1999; Porath, et al, 2000; Johnson and Indvik, 2001, etc). The works of these and other researchers are significant in terms of reporting the seriousness of incivility as well as creating the necessary awareness in the public domain. However, there appears to be no empirical study that simultaneously investigates the relationship between workplace incivility and employees’ intention to stay. It also appears there is dearth of studies on incivility in the Nigerian work context, especially in the oil and gas industry. It is against this background that this study seeks to investigate the relationship between workplace incivility and employees’ intention to stay in selected oil and gas companies Rivers State.
1.3 CONCEPTUAL FRAMEWORK
Figure 1.1: Conceptual framework of workplace incivility and employees intention to stay.
Source: Conceptualized by the Researcher
The conceptual framework for this study is a framework of analyzing the relationship between workplace incivility and employees intention to stay. The independent variable (workplace incivility) is on the left hand side of the model while the dependent variable is on the right hand side of the model. The moderating variable is located in the middle. The four dimensions of the independent variable (workplace incivility) identified by Blau and Anderson (2005), adopted Morteza M. et al (2012) are; (1) discrimination; (2) Sexual Harassment; (3) Social Isolation; (4) Sabotage. On the other hand, the dependent variable, employees intention to stay, will be measured directly with intention to stay as used by several researchers (Johanim et al, 2012; Vimala S., 2012; Shakeel M, and Safdar U., 2012;Gary A., 2012; Noraani et al, 2011; Yasushi et al, 2006; Mattias R. and Benjamin E., 2005; etc). also indicated in the framework, is the moderating effect of corporate culture on the relationship between workplace civility and employees intention to stay. We are assuming that the relationship between the independent variable and the dependent variable may be directly moderated by the culture of the organization.
1.4 PURPOSE OF THE STUDY
The purpose of this study is to examine the relationship between workplace incivility and employees intention to stay in the oil and gas sector in Nigeria. Specially, this study seeks to;
i. Ascertain the relationship between discrimination and intention to stay.
ii. Examine the relationship between sexual harassment and intention to stay.
iii. Find out the relationship between social isolation and intention to stay.
iv. Investigate the relationship between sabotage and intention to stay.
v. Examine if corporate culture will moderate the relationship between workplace incivility on employees’ intention to stay.
1.5 RESEARCH QUESTIONS
The focus of research question to be addressed in this study is: what is the relationship between workplace incivility and employees’ intention to stay? This study seeks to address the following specific research questions.
i. What is the relationship between discrimination and intention to stay?
ii. What is the influence of sexual harassment on intention to stay?
iii. What is the relationship between social isolation and intention to stay?
iv. What is the influence of sabotage on intention to stay?
v. Will corporate culture moderate the relationship between workplace incivility and employees’ intention to stay?
1.6 RESEARCH HYPOTHESES
The following hypotheses will be tested in this study.
H01: There is no significant relationship between Discrimination and Intention to Stay.
H02: There is no significant relationship between sexual harassment and intention to stay.
H03: There is no significant relationship between social isolation and intention to stay.
H04: There is no significant between sabotage and intention to stay.
H05: Corporate Culture will not moderate the relationship between Workplace Incivility and Employees’ Intention to stay.
1.7 SIGNIFICANCE OF THE STUDY
What incited this research investigation is that there appears to be a substantial body of theory and research internationally on workplace incivility, but none of these researchers have specifically linked workplace incivility to employees’ intention to stay. This study will definitely contribute to existing knowledge on the topic under study- workplace incivility and employees’ intention to stay. Apart from the aforementioned, management practitioners will also benefit greatly from the study as it will reveal the relationship between workplace incivility and employees’ intention to stay.
It is believed that at the end of this study, much revelation would have been made on workplace incivility and its relationship with employees’ intention to stay in organizations in the Nigerian work context with a focus on employees in the Oil and Gas industry.
The significance of this study is embedded within the potential impact the findings from the study may have on organizational management, researchers and practitioners of management. An example of potential impact on organizational management could be the development of management training and increased awareness in the area of workplace incivility. Consideration could also be given to the importance of formulating and implementing corporate policies to control uncivil behaviorus within the workplace with a view to enhancing employees’ intention to stay in the organization. The findings from this study is also anticipated to be of immense benefits to researchers and practitioners of management, in that it is expected to serve as a springboard for further research on workplace incivility and employees’ intention to stay both within and outside the oil and gas industry.
1.8 SCOPE OF THE STUDY
Content Scope: The review literature of this study will be restricted to literatures on workplace incivility and employees’ intention to stay.
Geographical Scope: In terms of the geographic scope, the target industry is the oil and gas sector in Nigeria. The research will be conducted using selected oil and gas companies in Rivers State.
Unit of Analysis: The unit of analysis of this study will be at individual level; information on workplace incivility and its impact on employees’ intention to stay will be elicited from the employees of the selected companies using questionnaires.
1.9 LIMITATION OF THE STUDY
It is imperative to state that this research should not be assumed to be an exhaustive study on the variables under consideration. This is as a result of the existence of uncontrolled factors that have been envisaged to impact the study findings. Firstly, the time and resources available to undertake this study will, obviously, be constraints to the scope, such that the findings may not fully represent the view of all the employees in the Nigerian oil and gas industry as well as other sectors of the Nigerian economy. Secondly, the sensitivity of the sample element (employees) is envisaged to have considerable impact on their willingness to release vital information which will, in turn, affect the validity of the findings of this study. Lastly, an employee in the oil and gas industry appears to be highly conscious, hence, it is anticipated that some difficulty in accessing respondent might be experienced.
1.10 OPERATIONAL DEFINITION OF TERMS
In order to achieve the purpose of this research and to eliminate any ambiguity as regards some of the concepts considered pivotal in this work, the following are some the concepts used as well as their meanings within the context of this study.
Corporate Culture: This refers to the shared values, attitudes, standards, and beliefs that characterize members of an organization and define its nature. It is rooted in an organization’s goals, strategies, structure, and approaches to labor, customers, investors, and the greater community.
Discrimination: This entails treating people differently because of certain characteristics, such as race, colour, gender, or religion, which results in the impairment of equality of opportunity and treatment. In other words, it is the act of treating a particular group or person differently based on solely on his or her protected classification.
Intention to Stay: It is the tendency or the willingness of an employee to remain employed in an organization.
Sabotage: This is considered as deliberate action(s) taken by an employee (s) to hinder or undermine or disrupt the operations of an organization. This can range from deliberated nonperformance to acts of vandalism, to financial fraud.
Sexual Harassment: An unwelcome sexual behaviour, which could make a person feel offended, humiliated or intimidated. Sexual harassment can be physical, verbal or written.
Social Isolation: This is considered the absence of social interactions, contacts, and relationship with colleagues in the workplace. It is also distancing of an individual, physically or psychologically, or both, from his or her network of desired or needed relationship with others within an organization.
Workplace Incivility: This is a form of organizational deviance characterized by low intensity behaviour that violate respectful workplace norms, appearing vague as to intent to harm. Unethical behaviours are characteristically rude and discourteous, displaying a lack of regard for others.
1.11 ORGANIZATION OF THE STUDY
This study is organized into five chapters. Chapter one introduces the topic of this thesis with an overview of the two major concepts under consideration and established the roadmap for this study. Chapter two focused on the review of related literatures on workplace incivility and employees’ intention to stay with an attempt to establish a relationship between the two concepts based on existing body of knowledge. Chapter three outlines the methodology used for testing the hypotheses generated based on conceptual framework and research questions of the study, together with a discussion on the sample, design procedure, instrumentation, and statistical analyses employed for this purpose. Chapter four presents and interprets the results of statistical analyses and findings from the test on the study hypotheses. Finally, chapter five further discusses the results, its implications and provides the recommendations emanating from the study.