JOB ENRICHMENT AND EMPLOYEE SATISFACTION IN NIGERIAN ORGANIZATIONS: A STUDY OF SELECTED UNIVERSITIES IN THE NIGER DELTA REGION.
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JOB ENRICHMENT AND EMPLOYEE SATISFACTION IN NIGERIAN ORGANIZATIONS: A STUDY OF SELECTED UNIVERSITIES IN THE NIGER DELTA REGION.
TABLE OF CONTENTS
CHAPTER ONE: INTRODUCTION
1.1 background to the study 1
1.2 statement of problem 1
1.3 conceptual framework 1
1.4 purpose of the study 5
1.5 research questions 7
1.6 research hypotheses 9
1.7 significance of the study 10
1.8 scope of the study 11
1.9 limitation of the study 12
1.10 organization of the study 13
1.11 operational definition of term 14
CHAPTER TWO: REVIEW OF RELATED LITERATURE
2.1 Introduction 18
2.2 concept of job enrichment 18
2.3 theoretical framework 18
2.4 dimensions of job enrichment 21
2.4.1 skill variety 21
2.4.2 task identify 22
2.4.3 task significance 22
2.4.4 autonomy 23
2.4.5 feedback 23
2.5 concept of job satisfaction 24
2.5.1 job satisfaction defined 26
2.5.2 determination and causes of job satisfaction 29
2.6 measures of employees satisfaction 30
2.7 organizational culture 33
2.8 relationship between job enrichment and employee
2.9 theories/models of job satisfaction 36
2.10 the link between motivation and satisfaction 42
2.11 correlations of job satisfaction with other variables 46
2.11.1 job involvement 46
2.11.2 organizational citizenship behaviour 47
2.11.3 organizational commitment 48
2.11.4 turnover 49
2.11.5 absenteeism 49
2.11.6 perceived stress 50
CHAPTER THREE: RESEARCH METHODOLOGY
3.1 Introduction 64
3.2 research design 64
3.3 population of the study 64
3.4 sampling size determination and sampling procedure 65
3.5 pilot study 67
3.6.1 independent variable measuring instrument 67
3.6.2 dependent variable measuring instrument 67
3.6.3 moderating variable measuring instrument 68
3.7 test of validity and reliability 69
3.7.1 reliability and validity of the job diagnostic survey(JDS) 71
3.7.2 reliability and validity of Minnesota statisfaction
Questionnaire (MSQ20) 71
3.7.3 reliability and validity of the corporate culture 72
3.8 research instrument 72
3.9 procedure methods of data collection 74
3.10 data analysis technique 74
1.1 BACKGROUND TO THE STUDY
The success of an organization depends not merely on its technical know-how, updated machinery, good plant layout and other production based dynamics. It also depends upon its human resources. A satisfied, happy and hardworking employee is the biggest asset of any organization. Therefore, the workforce of any organization is responsible to a large extent for its productivity, sustainability, and profitability. Thus, for the success of any organization, it is very important to manage human resource effectively and to find out whether its employees are satisfied or not.
One of the key assets of any organization is its employees. The success or failure of the organization depends on their satisfaction or dissatisfaction. One of the reasons for deteriorating job performance in most organization is low job satisfaction. As a consequence, work slows down, employee remain absent and sometimes employee may leave the organization resulting to reduced level of stability of tenure and to a large extent, the stability of the organization. High job satisfaction on the other hand, is desired by most organization because it is connected with positive outcomes that mangers desire. High job satisfaction is the hallmark of well managed organization and is fundamentally the result of effective behavioural management. It is the measure of the counting process of building a supportive human climate in an organization.
The level of motivation, satisfaction and work performance of an employee on the job is influenced by job enrichment. Human resource management literature indicates that job enrichment is influenced by job characteristics, such as skill variety, tasks identify, task importance, autonomy, job feedback and job scope (Fried and Ferris 1987:292). Interestingly, job characteristics have impact on employee satisfaction. Job enrichment is simply the introduction of variety and significance into the work (Miner 2002) and employee satisfaction is the organization’s ability to fulfill the physical, emotional and physiological needs of its employee (Malatjie, 2007:21).
The question of how to properly enrich a job in terms of design so that employees are more productive and more satisfied has received attention from manages and researchers since the beginning of the 19th century in an attempt to determine the most efficient way to perform jobs. What was in the fashion at the that time were simplification and specialization of the task, which, in corroboration with scientists, confirmed to be useful to enhance the efficiency of production (Taylor 1911, Gilbreth 1911, as cited in Morgeson & Campion 2002). Generally, the classical management theorists pioneered job enrichment with the concept of simplification and specialization of the task. Specialization reflects a depth of knowledge and skill in a particular area. However, the work of Frederick Herzberg on two-factor theory popularized the concept of job enrichment and the concept has proven to be very meaningful and useful in the workplace. Hackman & Oldham (1980) job characteristic model (JCM) is also the basis for job enrichment model. The theory was built on previous knowledge and research, mainly coming from Need Hierarchy theory and from expectancy theory, and using also an earlier work by Turner and Lawrence (1965) about task attributes (Jacko 2004:2).
They depicted positive work structure in the form of five job characteristics (skill variety, task identify, task significance, autonomy, feedback) which promoted higher intrinsic psychological factors (meaningfulness, responsibility, knowledge of results) and thus improve motivation and work performance. An employee with the knowledge of results of their work, a sense of responsibility, and an understanding of the meaningfulness of their work will ultimately have greater satisfaction on the job.
Job enrichment is under the influence of job related factors and jobs’ characteristics (i.e. the nature of work, variety, management work groups, work condition and advancement opportunities). The job design in terms of scope, depth, interest, and perceived value is of great importance on the impact of job enrichment on employee satisfaction. The nature and characteristics of employee work has a great impact on worker satisfaction and the way they perform at work.
According to Ugboro (2006), well designed jobs have a positive influence on employee motivation and performance, leading to improved individual and group organizational performance outcomes such as their membership (joining/leaving an organization), reliable role beahviour (how well the worker does their job), and innovative, spontaneous action (going above and beyond the normal job).
Theories behind work design traditionally focuses on creating or changing the nature of employee job to improve their psychological state and therefore increase their performance outcomes (Achiaa,2012:1). Work design refers to a spectrum of job factors, ranging from internal and external organizational factors to the way tasks are organized, that affect what people do at work and how effectively they can do it. The concept has roots in theories of work motivation to improve employee satisfaction and performance and therefore organizational productivity and efficiency (Campion, Mumford, Morgeson & Nahrgang, 2005).
The nature of job design goes a long way to make job enrichment a reality. The way organizations design job is necessary because it will either boost or reduce job performance. Herzberg was the first to state that organizations should concentrate on increasing worker productivity through job enrichment and that job enrichment is directly to job satisfaction job enrichment and employee satisfaction causes a series of influence on various aspects of organizational life. Some of them such as the influence of job satisfaction on employee productivity work productivity, work effort, loyalty, employee absenteeism, staff turnover, tardiness, accident, strikes, grievances, sabotage etc.
Job satisfaction is an important factor for the organizations success. Job satisfaction is a collection of positive feelings or an emotional state that a person perceive based on a variety of aspect of the work itself or work environment. Rain, Lane & Steiner (1991) states that job satisfaction is correlated to life satisfaction which means that people who satisfied with life will tend to be satisfied with the job and people who are satisfied with their job will tend to be satisfied with their life. Satisfied workers will be more productive and stay with the organization longer, while dissatisfied workers will be less productive and will have reasons to want to quite the job (Sarker, Crossman, Chinmeteepituck,2003). Productivity results from looking at how hard employees work and how smartly they work (Riechheld, 1996). According to Reichheld, there are criteria that impact on how hard employees are working. They work hard when:
1. They have job pride,
2. When they find their jobs interesting and meaningful, and
3. When they are recognized for their work and benefit from the work they have accomplished.
Satisfied employee provides higher level of external service quality and the required service experience to the customer which in turn leads to customer satisfaction. Arnett, Laverie and Mclane (2002) found that employee satisfaction is linked to positive employee behaviour such as having a good customer orientation. Job satisfaction can be a leading contribution factor for employee turnover reduction. Previous researchers have shown that satisfied employees are more likely to stay in the organization than those who are dissatisfied (Mobley et al., 1979; and Salazar and Hubbard, 2000). So, by focusing on what contributes to job satisfaction, an organization can reduce turnover.
By evaluating job satisfaction an organization can increase positive outcomes such as employee performance and satisfaction, and can also decrease absenteeism and turnover. Investigating the employee or employee value- perception can aid in managers’ ability to build and create work environment that help them to achieve high level of employee satisfaction.
Job enrichment and employee satisfaction represent one of the most complex areas facing managers when it comes to managing their employees. Many studies have demonstrated an unusually huge impact of job enrichment on employee satisfaction. It is good to note that the level of satisfaction has a great impact on productivity and on performance of business organizations. This study was inspired by the need to know how employee job satisfaction may be affected by job enrichment in the workplace and to understand if job enrichment theory termed job characteristics Theory Model by Hackman & Oldham (1980) understands the reality in contemporary society, considering the fact that jobs are different in nature from those in the 1990s and 1970s, when job characteristics Theory Model was formulated.
1.2 STATEMENT OF THE PROBLEM
The main problem of a study refers to the inevitable consequences arising from lack of a phenomenon under study. (Uzoagulu 1998:13). In today’s organizations, priorities of workplace are dynamically changing and employee perception of work has also changed. Now in workplace, the employee is interested in doing enriched jobs which can satisfy his/her feelings of growth and career development. The major problems organizations face is if employee satisfaction is influenced by the type of jobs/tasks a person is assigned to complete at work and whether employee find their work interesting and meaningful. What determines employee satisfaction is on the job outcomes.
Job that does not offer skill variety, task identify, task importance, and autonomy and job feedback may not lead to employee satisfaction.
How to make job meaningful in organization with a view to enhancing performance in organization in terms of job modifications has been management practitioners concern since the nineteen century. Both management practitioners and researchers have grappled with the issue of job enrichment for years probably because of the belief that it would solve organizational problems. The fact that job enrichment is firmly lodged in the vocabulary of managers is not in doubt but the extents which to managers are beginning to accept job enrichment is still not clear in terms of its applicability in the workplace.
When an employee fails on assigned job, he fails sometimes faulty job designed. A variety of job factors enhances job enrichment at work some of which are tangible and some intangible. Although employee derive satisfaction from their job, or places of work, for different reason, this study is specifically concerned with the need fulfillment satisfaction-satisfaction based on the extent to which a job satisfaction the need of the employee.
Job enrichment factors identified as skill variety, task identify, task importance, autonomy, and feedback that the study dimension are anchored on as a focal point, are based on the notion that job enrichment is influenced by the type of tasks a person completes at work. By inference it implies that employees as part of job enrichment will prefer tasks of moderate ability. Arising from the foregoing, the questions are: does the number of different skills necessary to do a job (skill variety) lead to employee satisfaction in organization/ whether or not an employee does an entire job or a piece of job (task identify/task variety) actually affects employee satisfaction? Does the impact a job has on other people (task significance/task importance) actually affect employee satisfaction? Does the freedom employees have to do their jobs as they see fit (autonomy) actually count in employee satisfaction? Does it really matter to employee satisfaction if it is obvious to the employee that they are he doing this jobs correctly i.e. how much insight a person has with regards to different aspects of this job affect his/her performance on the job.
While there are numerous contributions in the areas of job enrichment and job satisfaction, there are not too many of such studies that attempt to combine the two concepts into a larger relational flow. It is furtherance of this that this study reviews literature from a number of studies that attempt to outline how the enrichment of a job can affect employee job satisfaction and relate the two in such a way as to the demonstrate their applicability and degree of relevance.
1.3 CONCEPTUAL FRAMEWORK
The conceptual framework for this research focuses on job enrichment as independent variable and employee satisfaction as dependent variable.
Figure 1.1 the conceptual framework indicating the relationship transformational leadership style and employee satisfaction as well as the moderating variable.
Source: Conceptualized by the Researcher
Oldham and Hackman (1980) has identified skill variety, skill identify, task significance, autonomy, and feedback as dimensions of job enrichment and Cosier and Dalton (1983), Eagly and Chaiken (1993), TekeII, Jeremy Kyle (2014) have all identified affective and cognitive job satisfaction as measures of employee satisfaction. In the model stated above, job enrichment is the independent variable while employee satisfaction is the dependent variable. The independent variable (job enrichment) is on the left side of the model while the dependent variable (job satisfaction) is on the right side. The moderating variable (culture) is located in the middle of the model.
The dimensions of job enrichment are skill variety, task identify, task significance, autonomy and feedback. The measures of employee satisfaction is affective job satisfaction same as intrinsic satisfaction. The contextual variable for this study is corporate culture. It is assumed that the relationship between the independent variable (job enrichment) and the dependent variable (employee satisfaction) may be directed or moderated by corporate culture.
1.4 PURPOSE OF THE STUDY
The purpose of this study is to examine the role of job enrichment on employee satisfaction in selected Nigerian Universities in the Niger Delta Region of Nigeria. In this regard, the specific purposes of the study are:
i. To identify the relationship between skill variety and how it affects employee satisfaction.
ii. To examine how task identify affects employee satisfaction
iii. To investigate if task significance influences employee satisfaction.
iv. To investigate the relationship between autonomy and employee satisfaction.
v. To find out if job feedback has influence on employee satisfaction.
vi. To determine how the culture of the organization moderates the relationship between job enrichment and employee satisfaction.
1.5 RESEARCH QUESTIONS
Within the framework of the study, several issues were grounded in the theoretical and practical analyses. For this reason, specific research questions stand out and are as follows;
i. To what extent does skill variety influence employee satisfaction?
ii. To what extent does task identify affect employee satisfaction?
iii. To what extent does significance affect employee satisfaction?
iv. To what extent does autonomy affect employee satisfaction?
v. To what extent does feedback have any influence on employee satisfaction?
vi. To what extent does the culture of the organization moderate the relationship between job enrichment and employee satisfaction.
1.6 RESEARCH HYPOTHESES
Based on the research objectives, the following hypotheses were formulated for the study.
H01: There is no significance relationship between skill variety and affective satisfaction.
H02: There is no significance relationship between task identify and affective satisfaction.
H03: There is no significance relationship between task significance and affective satisfaction.
H04: There is no significance relationship between autonomy and affective satisfaction.
H05: There is no significance relationship between job feedback and affective satisfaction.
H06: The culture of an organization does not significantly moderate the relationship between job enrichment and employee satisfaction.
1.7 SIGNIFICANCE OF THE STUDY
The significance of a study contains the benefits or value of the study (Uzoagulu 1998:33). This study is intended to help organizations under stud to be aware of the significance and importance of job enrichment and its effects on employee satisfaction, as well as, how to address or cope with the resultant consequences arising from its misapplication or misconception. The significance of the study will be categorized into two: theoretical significance and practical significance.
This study is intended to help academicians and scholars in specific terms who might be interested in this area of research in adding to their wealth of knowledge by broadening their scope.
The study will help organizations, human resource practitioners, and other users of such information relating to job enrichment and employee satisfaction in dealing with situations arising from its effects or lack of it. The researcher being an employer of laour, will benefit immensely from the results of his findings.
1.8 SCOPE OF THE STUDY
The scope of this study covers three areas namely content scope, geographic scope, and study unit. Specifically, this study attempts to investigate the causal relationship between job enrichment and employee satisfaction using culture as the moderating variable.
Our unit of analysis was inspired by Pfeffer (1982) who argued that the level of or unit of analysis is determined by the theoretical content of the criteria value. In this study, the study units are individuals not organization. The organization is of two-Micro and Macro level. The study is a micro level analysis. It is deductive; the researcher is pulling from a major knowledge.
In addition, the geographic scope is a sample of 4 selected Universities of the 11 Universities in the Niger Delta Region of Nigeria.
Thus, this study is a case study that focuses specifically on the employees of selected Nigerian Universities in the Niger Delta of Nigeria. However, generalizability of the results of the study is problematic as the study is conducted in few selected Nigerian Universities in the Niger Delta Region of Nigeria.
1.9 LIMITATION OF THE STUDY
All studies or investigations have restrictions (Alberts, 2007:9). These restrictions maybe that there is limited available research funding, restriction of the sample, practical issues like time constraints, a lack of research support, and the limited available measuring instruments and methods of data analysis. In the course of carrying out this study, the following limitations were envisaged:
Given the timing of the research work, it was not possible to cover universities in the six geo-political zone of Nigeria. Hence emphasis was on selected universities in the Niger Delta region of Nigeria. It should be noted that the selected cases are not considered representative of a larger population.
It is also foresee that the researcher might be constrained by limited resources, as a result contact persons are likely to be used to distribute and completed questionnaire.
1.10 ORGANIZATION OF THE STUDY
This study is divided into several chapters. This will ensure that the discussions are clear and consistent with the distinct arrears covered by each chapter. For the purpose of this study, the discussions are divided into five chapters.
This chapter outlines the introduction, problem statement, conceptual framework, and purpose of the study, research questions, and research hypotheses, significance of the study, scope of the study and limitation of the study.
To aid in the attainment of the purpose of the study, a survey of the available literature will be undertaken in chapter two. Hence, the chapter will therefore provide the theoretical grounding that forms the premise of the study and gives an overview of existing literature on job enrichment and employee job satisfaction.
This chapter provide an in depth discussion of the research methodology used to investigate the research problem. The design of the sample selection and size, research instruments used, procedures followed and the statistical techniques used to analyze the data is also highlighted. By and large, the chapter focuses on the methodology used to collect data through questionnaire and interviews from the sampled population.
The chapter focuses on the results of the study i.e. the chapter focuses on the findings that became apparent from the research study.
Chapter five discusses result from findings. Conclusions are drawn based on the obtained results and the possible practical implications of the research findings are highlighted. In conclusion, recommendations for future studies are recommended. In summary, chapter five entails a conclusion and makes recommendations.
1.11 OPERATIONAL DEFINITION OF TERMS
Autonomy: The degree to which to the job provides substantial, independence, and discretion to the employee in scheduling the work and in determining the procedures to be used in carrying it out.
Affective organizational satisfaction: This is the emotional attachment, identification with, and involvement in the activities of the organization.
Employee Commitment: A strong belief in and the acceptance of organization’s goals, a willingness to exert considerable effort on behalf of the organization and a desire to remain a member of the organization.
Employee Performance: This is the degree of accomplishment of the task that makes up employees job.
Foci of Commitment: This refers to the individual and groups to whom the employee is attached.
Feedback from Job (itself): The degree to which carrying out the work activities required by the job results in the employee obtaining direct and clear information about the effectiveness of his or her performance.
Job Design: changing the content/process of a specific job.
Job Enlargement: Adding more variety into job.
Loyalty: This is the effective response to, and the identification with an organization based on a sense of duty and responsibility.
Organizational Commitment: A organization’s commitment to improving the partnership between employees and his or her employer. In addition, it refers to the organization believing in their employees and making them feel wanted and important. This, the organization does to foster satisfaction and ensure stability of ensure from the perspective of the employee.
Organizational Performance: This is the net effect of employees effort as modified by his abilities and job description.
Specialization: The degree to which job involves performing specialized task or possessing specialized knowledge and skill.
Skill Variety: The degree to which a job requires a variety of different activities in carrying out the work, which involve the use of a number of different skills and talents of the employee.
Task Identify: The degree to which the job requires completion of a ‘whole” and identifiable piece of work that is, doing a job from beginning to end with a visible outcome.
Task Significance: The degree to which the job has a substantial impact on the lives or work of the other people whether in the immediate organization or in the external environment.