UNEMPLOYMENT AND ECONOMIC DEVELOPMENT IN NIGERIA A CASE STUDY OF NWANGELE LOCAL GOVERNMENT AREA IN IMO STATE
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UNEMPLOYMENT AND ECONOMIC DEVELOPMENT IN NIGERIA
A CASE STUDY OF NWANGELE LOCAL GOVERNMENT AREA IN IMO STATE
The study was designed to discuss unemployment and economic development in Nigeria with particular reference to Nwangele local government area. In carrying out the study, questionnaires were used as the instrument to gather information, and were administered on one hundred and twenty (120) respondents. Using a detailed descriptive analytical method, the study found out that majority of unemployment people in our society do not have technical skills required in making themselves reliant. Government should provide infrastructural facilities to accelerate industrialization in rural areas thereby reducing rural-urban migration. The private sector and Non-government organization (NGO) were called upon to join government to find lasting solution to Nigeria mass unemployment problem through job creation. The unemployed person should be resourceful, innovative and adaptive to their environment. they should seek to be self-reliant.
TABLE OF CONTENTS
Title Page i
Table of Contents vi
1.0 General introduction 1
1.1 Statement of problem 5
1.2 Statement of objective 6
1.3 Research question 6
1.4 Statement of hypothesis 7
1.5 Method of study 8
1.6 Scope of study 9
1.7 Significance of the study 10
2.0 Literature Review 13
2.1 Concept of Underemployment 18
2.2 Theories of Unemployment 20
2.3 Types of Unemployment 23
Unemployment in Nigeria is one of the most critical problems the country is facing. Youth restiveness and kidnaping in Nigeria in recent times have generated so much issues that many believe that unemployment is the major cause of this enemy of society. The years of corruption, civil war, military rule and mismanagement have hindered economic growth of the country. Nigeria is endowed with diverse and infinite resources, both human and material.
However, years of negligence and adverse policies have led to the under-utilization of these resources. These resources have not been effectively utilized in order to yield maximum economic benefits. This is one of the primary causes of unemployment in Nigeria.
Unemployment in Nigeria has resulted in more and more people in Nwangele local government area who do not have purchasing power. Less consumption has led to lower production and economic growth has been hampered. Unemployment also has social consequences as it increase the rate of crime.
The first national development plan charted Nigerians transition from an essentially agricultural economy to a mixed economy based on agricultural expansion and limited industrial growth. Government was heavily involved in the economy, because locally generated private investment was unable to generate sufficient capital development. New development plans were instituted in 1970 and 1975, but the goals set in all three plans proved unrealistic.
By the late 1960s, oil has replaced cocoa, peanuts, and palm products as the country’s biggest foreign exchange earner. In 1971, Nigeria by then the world’s seventh-largest petroleum producer became a member of the organization of petroleum exporting countries (OPEC). The dramatic rise in world oil prices in 1974 caused in Sudan flood of wealth that can be described as “much of the revenue was intended for investment to diversify the economy, but it also spurred inflation and coming in the midst of widespread unemployment underscored inequalities in distribution. In 1975, production fell sharply as a result of the sudden decrease in world demand, and prices moved downward until late that year when OPEC intervened to raise price. Nigeria fully supported OPEC policies.
In 1972, the government issued an indigenization decree, the first of a number of Nigeria enterprises promotion decrees that barred aliens from investing in specified enterprises and reserved participation in certain trades to Nigerians. At the time, about 70% of commercial firms operating in Nigeria were foreign owned. In 1975, the federal government bought 60% of the equity in the marketing operations of the major oil companies in Nigeria, but full nationalization was rejected as a means of furthering its programme of indigenization.
The issue of persistent unemployment and utilization poses a great challenge to policy planners, human resources experts and persons dealing with employment programme, planning and implementation. The late president of the united states of American John F. Kennedy in the first manpower reports in the U.S observed “manpower is the basic resource”. It is the indispensable means of converting other resources to mankind use and benefits. How well we develop and use human skills is fundamentals in deciding how much we will accomplish as a nation”. If the assertion is accepted, it puts in to sharp perspective the challenge of manpower development and utilization in Nigeria, which has been characterized by high rate of unemployment in the 1980s, and its persistence into 2000s.
Thus, the Nigeria population has a major implication for the nation. The demand for education is a case in point, in which we have many people who enroll in our primary, secondary and tertiary institutions. At the end of each academic year, these educational institutions turn out more graduates who eventually become potential job seekers in the Nigerian laobur market. As a result of the new dimension of unemployment, the federal government had in the past, established institutions and programme that will help reduce the problem development. Between 1971 and 1986, a number of key manpower development institutions were established. In 1986, the federal government established the national directorate of employment which aim was also established to enhance on the job trainings. The center for management development (CMD) which offers managerial training to the private sector was also established to reduce the level of unemployment in Nigeria. Other institutions like the national open apprenticeship scheme (NOAS) and graduate self-employment index (GSEI) were also established.
Although various governments have made serious efforts to curb the problem of unemployment, this enemy of our society continues to increase the hardship of Nigeria citizens.
1.1 STATEMENT OF PROBLEM
Our economy has suffered great problems arising from unemployment, since 1960 when Nigeria got her independence from the British.
The problem of unemployment in Nigeria has been a long and lingering one with so many deleterious effects on the economy, society and people themselves.
Various governments have made several efforts through various programmes and policies to tackle this problem of unemployment.
However, in spite of all these efforts, it is still noticeable that this problem is still very much around in the economy and the effects seem to become more pronounced and far-reaching in terms of its negative effects on Nigeria’s economic development.
Therefore, there is a need to do a study to find out why these policies and programmes meant to tackle unemployment have not been effective.
1.2 STATEMENT OF OBJECTIVE
Ø To critically examine nature and the causes of unemployment in Imo State.
Ø To identify some of the government programmes of employment with a view to ascertaining their efficiency.
Ø To determine socio-economic impact of unemployment in Nwangele local government area.
1.3 RESEARCH QUESTION
The instruments used in choosing our respondents were through distribution of questionnaire and interviews. We used the same types of questionnaires for all levels of respondents. The questionnaire consists of twenty questions and one hundred and twenty (120) copies of used to get responses from respondents. There are:
1. Has Imo State government made efforts to provide jobs in recent times?
2. Do you think that youth restiveness is as a result of widespread unemployment?
3. In your opinion, does the high rate of unemployment today affect economic development?
4. What are the major causes of unemployment in Nwangele
5. Considering difficulties people face today in obtaining job, what job areas has many find jobs easily.
6. Can age prevent someone from getting a job in a certain establishment?
1.4 STATEMENT OF HYPOTHESIS
This study has two hypotheses
H01: There is no significant relationship between unemployment and economic development.
H02: There is a significant relationship between unemployment and economic development.
H01: Imo State government has not made efforts to provide jobs in recent times.
H0: Imo State government has made efforts to provide jobs in recent times.
1.5 METHOD OF STUDY
The data for this work is based on both primary and secondary sources. The primary data will be sourced using questionnaire and interviews. The secondary source is through existing information is that is related to this study. The sources include: published works of national planning commission on national economic empowerment and development strategy (NEEDS); information gotten from textbooks and articles published on unemployment available on the internet.
1.6 SCOPE OF THE STUDY
This research work is confined to unemployment and economic development in Wwangele local government, Imo State. Specific effort is made to relate how this problem affects the people of Nwangele local government area (L.G.A), Imo State.
The study also covers the consequences of unemployment in Nigeria. It highlights behaviour pattern of people showing that all hands must be on deck in harnessing effective measures to ameliorate the rate of unemployment in Nigeria in order to encourage rapid development to all sectors of the economy.
1.7 SIGNIFICANCE OF THE STUDY
The rate of urbanization in Nigeria (about 5.3% a year) is one of the fastest in the world. Urban unemployment is estimated at about 10.8% if manufacturing and services sector do not grow sufficiently to absorb the surge of labour to buran areas and if rural areas are not transformed to stem the growth in migration to urban areas, the rare of urban unemployment could become unmanageable. The implication for poverty and crime, conflict and the maintenance of democracy are grave.
Since majority of unemployed people in Nigeria are graduates who can direct their education to crime if they are not gainfully employed, this research work is thus an invaluable tool in advising the government and concerned Nigerians on effective measures to reduce the suffering of our people.