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THE IMPACT OF TECHNOLOGICAL INNOVATION (MECHANIZATION) ON THE AGRICULTURAL SECTOR OF THE NIGERIA ECONOMY.




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THE IMPACT OF TECHNOLOGICAL INNOVATION (MECHANIZATION) ON THE AGRICULTURAL SECTOR OF THE NIGERIA ECONOMY.



ABSTRACT
This study focused on the impact of technological innovation (mechanization) in the agricultural sector of the Nigerian economy. The importance of agriculture to the Nigerian economy was examined and mechanization application was introduced to further improve the Nigerian agriculture sector. Data for this work are from interviews, secondary data and the main sources are from federal office of statistics, rivers state, agricultural development programme (ADP) River State, central bank of Nigeria, World Bank library Rivers State, and CBN bulletin Nigeria. A simple statistical tool, the bar chart and spearman’s rank correlation coefficient regression was used to analyze the data collected in the course of this study. We found out that with mechanization of agriculture, there was a tremendous success in agricultures contribution to GDP. The oil sector which is now the sole provider of revenue to finance economic growth and development can be aided by the help of agriculture to increase and stimulate development at a faster rate. From agriculture we get food, clothing, shelter, export earnings, labour and employment. This study reveals the importance of mechanization to the agricultural sector of the economy and the need to help local farmers who are the major cultivators of food for the society with this, poverty incidence will be eradicated. This study therefore asserts that there is a negative relationship between agriculture annual contributions to the gross domestic product of the economy. In conclusion, certain recommendation was made by the research to both the government and other researchers not to relent in their activities towards developing Nigeria.


TABLE OF CONTENTS
Certification                                                                             i
Dedication                                                                               ii
Acknowledgement                                                                    iii
Abstract                                                                                   v
Table of Contents                                                                     vi
CHAPTER ONE
1.0   Introduction                                                                     1
1.1   Background of study                                                                3
1.2   Statement of problem                                                      5
1.3   Objective of study                                                            6
1.4   Method of study                                                               7
1.5   Scope and limitation                                                                7
1.6   Significance of study                                                                8
CHAPTER TWO
2.0   Literature review/theoretical background                                9
2.1   Definition of key concepts                                                        12
2.2   The performance of agriculture sector pre-Sap Era (1970-1985)
                                                                                                14
2.3   The Sap Era (1986-1993)                                                15
2.4   Era of guided deregulation (1994-1999)                          18
2.5   Relevance of technological inputs in Nigeria agriculture  20


CHAPTER THREE; RESEARCH METHOD AND THEORETICAL BACKGROUND
3.0   Introduction                                                                     23
3.1   Aim of study                                                                    26
3.2   Sources of data                                                                        26
3.3   Sampling method and size                                               27
3.4   Method of data collection                                                 27
3.5   Method of analyzing the data                                           27
CHAPTER FOUR
4.0   Presentation and analysis of data                                    29
4.1   Annual total gross domestic production (GDP) and annual growth rate of agriculture’s contribution to GDP            30
4.2   Percentage share of agriculture to total GDP 30 graphically represented                                                                 31
CHAPTER FIVE: SUMMARY, CONCLUSION AND SUGGESTION
5.1   Summary                                                                         34
5.2   Conclusion                                                                      37
5.3   Suggestion                                                                       37
5.3.1 Suggestion for policy                                                       38
5.3.2 Suggestion for further studies                                         38
Bibliography                                                                            47
Appendix I                                                                               49
Appendix II                                                                              50


CHAPTER ONE
1.0   INTRODUCTION
 Nigeria was essentially an agrarian economy with agriculture accounting for significant shares in gross domestic product and total export earnings as well as employing about 60-70% of total population in West Africa, also providing the bulk of labour force before the oil boom.
Agriculture is the science and art of planting of crops and rearing of animals for man’s use. It covers all crops and animals which are used directly or indirectly for food, building, ornaments, and clothing and together with the various implements used in agricultural practices. It covers the combination of all both environmental factors which include temperature, rainfall, and nature of soil human include the inputs such as capital, technology and labour.
Much has written about agriculture. This great attention that was and still focused on agriculture is due to its importance in the past and at present in the whole world.
All over the world, agriculture has provided the initial phase for all forms of human development.
According to Davis Fogg agriculture is the economic main stay of nearly all underdeveloped countries. It provides employment for people, revenue and export earnings for industries, food for the people.
In time past agriculture contribution with regards employment was significant particularly in Nigeria and less developed countries of the world. Michael Todaro says that almost 70 percent of the world poorest people who form more than 50 percent of the world population are concerned with survival like in the rural areas where they engage in subsistence agriculture.
Nigeria is endowed with abundant natural resources these include large expense of fertile land that can support all type of crops.
According to Todaro’s view he says that the greatest part of Africa’s population probably 7 out of every 10 adults live directly off land either by cultivating the soil or by rearing of animals.
Agriculture is one of the real sectors that have the highest potential for achieving a broad-based economy, with the agricultural economist deciding and giving advice to agricultural on what to produce, how to produce and for whom to produce.
In time past with agriculture providing food money, raw materials for industries shows that with agriculture, Nigeria has a high potential of becoming a great nation in this millennium if agriculture as a sector is revisited and given adequate attention.
1.1   BACKGROUND OF STUDY
The background of this study deals with agricultural innovations in Nigeria both past and present. And the importance of mechanization in the development and growth of the Nigeria economy.
Agriculture has been defined as the art and practice of production or planting of crops and rearing of animals for human’s consumption and use. Longman’s dictionary of contemporary English defines innovations as new ways, ideas or methods. To innovate is to start to use new ideals, methods, and equipment in the art and practice of production in agriculture and then looking into the techniques or methods used in time past.
However, agricultural techniques or method in agricultural production and application, in this course of study involves specifically and inclusively the type of equipment and machines used in crop production.
The concept, technological innovation used here is scientific application of mechanization in the use of machines; crop planters and the changes or employment of new methods ideas to the art and practice of crop production to traditional agriculture. Alongside this research includes the combination and interaction of natural, biological and man-made factors such as plants and animals soil and climate, labour and capital and technology for the production of crops and animals for man’s use.
The agricultural sector of the Nigerian economy as important as it is deals more in traditional agriculture and it is dominated by rural farmers who practice subsistence agriculture. For the purpose of this research; the search into the economic importance of mechanization in agriculture, the maize crop is used as an example of a crop in production.

1.2   STATEMENT OF PROBLEM
Specifically with regards to the choice of agricultural old innovation and techniques used by local farmers.
The research problem covers the following,
1.     Is the choice of agricultural techniques determined by available technologies?
2.     Is the farmers’ income and standard of living affected by the choice of a specific agricultural techniques or method?
3.     Does the type of agriculture application used in production result in stagnation and non-expansion of agriculture?
4.     How total output of agriculture affect the national economy.


1.3   OBJECTIVE OF STUDY
This research work tends to examine the impact of mechanization of agriculture and its importance of the Nigeria economy.
The research covers the following;
1.     The type of agricultural methods and equipment used in crop production and problems associated with it.
2.     The economic importance of employing new innovation and mechanization.
3.     Recent trend to change from traditional to innovative technological agricultural techniques.
4.     Future prospects to charge and employing innovations.
1.4   METHOD OF STUDY
The method of study is discussed here. It describes the survey and analytical techniques adopted in this study; it explains the questions of how the research is carried out in terms of gaining a description of the nature of research, type and source of data model specification.
TYPE OF DATA
The type of data used in this research is primary (interview) and secondary data.
1.5   SCOPE AND LIMITATION
The scope of this work covers the annual growth rate of agriculture between the years 1981-1990.
It also coves the percentage share of agriculture contribution, to Nigeria annual GPD (gross domestic product) for the years 1981-1990.
Limitations faced in this work include financial and transport problems.
Another limitation encountered in this work is the unavailability of relevant and correct data needed to verify the work.
1.6   SIGNIFICANCE OF STUDY
This research work will expose to the general public on the importance of mechanization on agriculture and its implementation on agriculture as a source of revenue generation in the increase in gross domestic product and gross annual growth rate on the Nigeria economy. It shows how income, employment, labour and revenue generated can increase the development rate of the nation.
Finally, the government or policy makers will find the various inputs, suggestions and recommendation valuable in making future policy formation and implementation.


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